Lipophilic Marine Biotoxins SERS Sensing In Solutions And In Mussel Tissue.
Published 2018 · Medicine, Chemistry
To detect and recognise three structurally related marine biotoxins responsible for the diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) symptom, namely okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) respectively, as well as the structurally different yessotoxin (YTX), we developed a novel surface-enhanced micro-Raman scattering (micro-SERS) approach to investigate for the first time their micro-SERS signalling in solution and jointly analysed them in conjunction with the normal and toxic mussel tissue. YTX provided the main SERS feature surprisingly similar to DTX-1 and DTX-2, suggesting similar molecular adsorption mechanism with respect to the AgNPs. A fingerprint SERS band at 1017 cm-1 characteristic for the C-CH3 stretching in DTX-1 and DTX-2 and absent in OA SERS signal, allowed direct SERS discrimination of DTX-1,2 from OA. In acid form or as dissolved potassium salt, OA showed reproducible SERS feature for 0.81 μM to 84.6 nM concentrations respectively, while its ammonium salt slightly changed the overall SERS signature. The inherently strong fluorescence of the shellfish tissue, which hampers Raman spectroscopy analysis, further increases when toxins are present in tissue. Through SERS, tissue fluorescence is partially quenched. Artificially intoxicated mussel tissue with DSP toxins and incubated with AgNPs allowed direct SERS evidence of the toxin presence, opening a novel avenue for the in situ shellfish tracking and warning via micro-SERS. Natural toxic tissue containing 57.91 μg kg-1 YTX (LC-MS confirmed) was micro-SERS assessed to validate the new algorithm for toxins detection. We showed that a portable Raman system was able to reproduce the lab-based SERS results, being suitable for in situ raw seafood screening. The new approach provides an attractive, faster, effective and low-cost alternative for seafood screening, with economic, touristic and sustainable impact in aquaculture, fisheries, seafood industry and consumer trust.