Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Multiple Developmental Processes Underlie Sex Differentiation In Angiosperms.

P. Diggle, V. S. Di Stilio, Andrea R. Gschwend, E. Golenberg, R. C. Moore, J. W. Russell, J. P. Sinclair
Published 2011 · Medicine, Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The production of unisexual flowers has evolved numerous times in dioecious and monoecious plant taxa. Based on repeated evolutionary origins, a great variety of developmental and genetic mechanisms underlying unisexual flower development is predicted. Here, we comprehensively review the modes of development of unisexual flowers, test potential correlations with sexual system, and end with a synthesis of the genetics and hormonal regulation of plant sex determination. We find that the stage of organ abortion in male and female flowers is temporally correlated within species and also confirm that the arrest of development does not tend to occur preferentially at a particular stage, or via a common process.
This paper references
10.1007/BF02857782
Heterochrony in plant evolutionary studies through the twentieth century
P. Li (2008)
10.2307/2656868
The questionable relationship of Montinia (Montiniaceae): evidence from a floral ontogenetic and anatomical study.
L. P. Decraene (2000)
10.2307/2446003
Structural analysis of female and hermaphroditic flowers of a gynodioecious tree, Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae).
J. Gibson (1997)
10.2307/2992017
A CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF SPECIES GROUPS IN WEINMANNIA (CUNONIACEAE) BASED ON MORPHOLOGY AND INFLORESCENCE ARCHITECTURE
J. Bradford (1998)
10.3732/ajb.89.4.699
Madagasikaria (Malpighiaceae): a new genus from Madagascar with implications for floral evolution in Malpighiaceae.
C. Davis (2002)
10.1371/journal.pgen.0020117
Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression during Early Arabidopsis Flower Development
F. Wellmer (2006)
10.1007/BF00940595
The morphology and relationships ofMedusagyne (Medusagynaceae)
W. Dickison (2004)
10.1093/AOB/MCM279
Floral development in the tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona.
C. F. Gouvêa (2008)
10.2307/2484708
Stylar polymorphism in epigaea repens a dioecious species
K. Clay (1981)
10.1007/BF00227578
Different kinds of male flowers in the dioecious plant Asparagus of officinalis L.
M. G. Galli (1993)
10.1534/genetics.107.071175
Early Events in the Evolution of the Silene latifolia Y Chromosome: Male Specialization and Recombination Arrest
J. Žlůvová (2007)
SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.
J. Bowman (1992)
10.1086/314175
Floral Ontogeny and Morphology in Subfamily Amygdaloideae T. & G. (Rosaceae).
Evans (1999)
10.1086/327364
Synopsis of North American Amaranthaceæ. V. (Concluded)
Edwin Burton Uline
10.2307/2399668
Evolution and phylogeny of the Araceae
M. Grayum (1990)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1985.tb08417.x
Functional dioecism in the Malpighiaceae: the breeding system of Spachea membranacea Cuatr
K. E. Steiner (1985)
10.1007/BF00317751
Pollen limitation and distance-dependent fecundity in females of the clonal gynodioecious herb Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae)
Björn Widén (2004)
10.1105/tpc.7.10.1583
Male and female flowers of the dioecious plant sorrel show different patterns of MADS box gene expression.
C. Ainsworth (1995)
10.1111/J.1469-8137.2005.01281.X
Intersex inflorescences of Rumex acetosa demonstrate that sex determination is unique to each flower.
C. Ainsworth (2005)
10.1038/nature02269
Vernalization requires epigenetic silencing of FLC by histone methylation
R. Bastow (2004)
10.1007/s00425-004-1342-2
Developmental analyses reveal early arrests of the spore-bearing parts of reproductive organs in unisexual flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Su-Lan Bai (2004)
10.1073/pnas.0909300106
Cytokinin and WUSCHEL tie the knot around plant stem cells
R. Sablowski (2009)
Flacourtiaceae
A. Bernhard (1999)
eds), volume 2 p 281-287
V. Bittrich (1990)
10.1111/J.1095-8339.2007.00758.X
Characterization of unisexual flower development in the endangered mahogany tree Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae)
Cantídio Fernando Gouvêa (2008)
10.1086/297571
Floral development of dioecious staghorn sumac, Rhus hirta (Anacardiaceae)
J. Gallant (1998)
10.1111/j.1558-5646.1987.tb05864.x
THE ACCUMULATION OF SEXUALLY ANTAGONISTIC GENES AS A SELECTIVE AGENT PROMOTING THE EVOLUTION OF REDUCED RECOMBINATION BETWEEN PRIMITIVE SEX CHROMOSOMES
W. L. Rice (1987)
10.2307/2656757
Floral development and the formation of unisexual spikelets in the Andropogoneae (Poaceae).
L. Le Roux (1999)
AFLP and ITS sequence data
C. O. Niklas (1987)
10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00800.x
An examination of the function of male flowers in an andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa.
Tao Zhang (2009)
Morphology, vascualr anatomy and embyrology of pistillate and staminate flowers
Phoenix dactylifera. Ann. Bot (1979)
10.1016/S1360-1385(97)01012-1
Genetics of sex determination in flowering plants
Sabine Lebel-Hardenack (1997)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1986.tb08559.x
FLORAL DEVELOPMENT IN MYRISTICA (MYRISTICACEAE)
J. Armstrong (1986)
10.2307/3668155
The Floral Nectaries of Geraniales. III. Lepidobotryaceae J. Leonard
D. A. Link (1991)
10.1007/s004970050101
Stamens are not essential as an attractant for pollinators in females of cryptically dioecious Thalictrum pubescens Pursch. (Ranunculaceae)
S. L. Davis (1997)
10.1016/j.cub.2010.05.013
Plant Development: Size Matters, and It's All Down to Hormones
Susana Úbeda-Tomás (2010)
A monograph of Forchhammeria (Capparidaceae). MS thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison
B. F. Hansen (1977)
10.2307/2446338
Evolution of novel morphological and reproductive traits in a clade containing Antirrhinum majus (Scrophulariaceae).
P. Reeves (1998)
10.1002/dvg.1020150304
Genetics of sex determination in flowering plants
S. Grant (1994)
10.1007/s00606-010-0290-5
Planchonella, first record of gynomonoecy for the family Sapotaceae
M. Méndez (2010)
10.1071/BT02015
Ontogeny of floral organs and morphology of floral apex in Phellodendron amurense (Rutaceae)
Q. Zhou (2002)
10.1007/978-1-4612-4734-0
Sexuality in Plants and Its Hormonal Regulation
M. K. Chaĭlakhi︠a︡n (1987)
10.2307/2418340
Evolution of Dioecism in Lepechinia Willd. sect. Parviflorae (Lamiaceae)
J. Hart (1985)
10.1126/science.131.3414.1673
Induction of Staminate Flowers on Gynoecious Cucumbers with Gibberellin A3
C. Peterson (1960)
10.1017/CBO9780511731419.008
The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species: POLYGAMOUS, DIŒCTOUS, AND GYNO-DIŒCIOUS PLANTS
C. Darwin (1889)
10.2307/2394972
Two New Species of Daphniphyllum
Tseng-chieng Huang (1966)
10.1007/s00122-004-1793-7
Molecular characterization and isolation of the F/f gene for femaleness in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
H. Mibus (2004)
10.2307/1939578
Evolution of a Flower Dimorphism: How Effective is Pollen Dispersal by "Male" Flowers?
R. D. Podolsky (1993)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1979.tb06281.x
MORPHOLOGY, VASCULAR ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY OF PISTILLATE AND STAMINATE FLOWERS OF ASPARAGUS OFFICINALIS
J. E. Lazarte (1979)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1972.tb10146.x
INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWER STRUCTURE IN NYPA FRUTICANS (PALMAE)
N. Uhl (1972)
10.1126/science.1164645
tasselseed1 Is a Lipoxygenase Affecting Jasmonic Acid Signaling in Sex Determination of Maize
Ivan F Acosta (2009)
10.2307/2446534
Artificial hybridization in the Hawaiian endemic genus Labordia (Loganiaceae).
T. Motley (1998)
10.1016/j.ympev.2008.03.028
Phylogeny of the basal angiosperm genus Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae) inferred from five chloroplast DNA regions, with interpretation of morphological character evolution.
Y. C. Su (2008)
10.1038/hdy.1983.28
Gynodioecy in plantago lanceolata L. II Inheritance of three male sterility types
J. V. Van Damme (1983)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1983.tb06431.x
COMPARATIVE REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF ACER PENSYLVANICUM AND A. SPICATUM (ACERACEAE)
J. Sullivan (1983)
herb Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae)
Y-W (2008)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1969.tb09746.x
MORPHOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FLOWERS OF BOOTTIA CORDATA, OTTELIA ALISMOIDES, AND THEIR SYNTHETIC HYBRID (HYDROCHARITACEAE)'
Robert B. Kaul (1969)
10.1105/tpc.107.051441
The DELLA Domain of GA INSENSITIVE Mediates the Interaction with the GA INSENSITIVE DWARF1A Gibberellin Receptor of Arabidopsis[W]
B. C. Willige (2007)
10.1086/317571
The Reproductive Structures of the Basal Angiosperm Amborella Trichopoda (Amborellaceae)
P. K. Endress (2000)
10.1139/B03-150
Cryptic dioecy in Actinidia polygama: a test of the pollinator attraction hypothesis
Tetsuhiro Kawagoe (2004)
10.1104/PP.124.2.627
A DEFICIENS homolog from the dioecious tree black cottonwood is expressed in female and male floral meristems of the two-whorled, unisexual flowers.
L. A. Sheppard (2000)
10.1038/hdy.2010.133
Cytoplasmic male sterility in Mimulus hybrids has pleiotropic effects on corolla and pistil traits
C. Barr (2011)
10.1023/A:1006343707567
Expression of ACC oxidase genes differs among sex genotypes and sex phases in cucumber
Anat Kahana (2004)
10.2307/2399292
Embryology of Tribe Gynotrocheae (Rhizophoraceae) and its Developmental and Systematic Implications
A. Juncosa (1988)
10.1111/J.1365-313X.2005.02336.X
Floral MADS box genes and homeotic gender dimorphism in Thalictrum dioicum (Ranunculaceae) - a new model for the study of dioecy.
V. S. Di Stilio (2005)
10.1073/PNAS.0610717104
The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes
P. Achard (2007)
10.1126/science.1197349
Vernalization-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing by a Long Intronic Noncoding RNA
J. Heo (2011)
10.1016/J.SCIENTA.2010.06.013
Anther wall development, microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in male fertile and sterile chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Asteraceae)
Fengtong Li (2010)
The biology of Ruscus hypophyllum L., including flower and fruit
M. I. Savchenko (1962)
10.1007/s00497-003-0169-5
The arrest of development of abortive reproductive organs in the unisexual flower of Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris
E. Caporali (2003)
10.2307/2399115
Floral structure, systematics, and phylogeny in Trochodendrales
P. K. Endress (1986)
10.1111/J.1744-7909.2006.00412.X
A Role for Auxin in Flower Development
Y. Cheng (2007)
10.1007/BF02418018
Gynodioecy inSaxifraga granulata L. (Saxifragaceae)
D. Stevens (1985)
10.1038/sj.hdy.6800016
Plant sex determination and sex chromosomes
D. Charlesworth (2002)
10.1007/s004970050083
Sex organ determination and differentiation in the dioecious plant Melandrium album (Silene latifolia): a cytological and histological analysis
I. Farbos (1997)
10.1139/b97-906
THE FLORAL DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCOCCUS ECHINOPHORUS (PHYTOLACCACEAE)
P. Vanvinckenroye (1997)
Male and female flowers of the dioecious plant sorrel show different patterns of MADS box gene
C Ainsworth (1995)
Flower development in Spirodela polyrrhiza ( Lemnaceae )
Božo Krajnčić (1979)
10.1007/BF00232743
Development of male and female flower in Asparagus officinalis. Search for point of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual developmental pathway
E. Caporali (2004)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1995.tb11504.x
Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants
S. Renner (1995)
10.1073/pnas.69.3.717
Ethylene: A Natural Regulator of Sex Expression of Cucumis melo L.
R. Byers (1972)
10.1002/jemt.20570
Application of microscopy in authentication of traditional Tibetan medicinal plants of five Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) alpine species by comparative anatomy and micromorphology.
Tao Li (2008)
10.1111/j.1095-8339.1992.tb00292.x
Flower structure and potential bisexuality in Freycinetia reineckei (Pandanaceae), a species of the Samoa Islands
K. L. Huynh (1992)
10.1111/J.1095-8339.2003.00281.X
Comparative floral structure and systematics in Cucurbitales (Corynocarpaceae, Coriariaceae, Tetramelaceae, Datiscaceae, Begoniaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Anisophylleaceae)
M. L. Matthews (2004)
10.1093/pcp/pcp064
A SUPERMAN-like gene is exclusively expressed in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia.
Y. Kazama (2009)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1988.tb11271.x
BREEDING SYSTEM IN FICUS CARICA, THE COMMON FIG. I. FLORAL DIVERSITY'
N. G. Beck (1988)
10.1038/sj.emboj.7601311
Silencing by plant Polycomb‐group genes requires dispersed trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27
D. Schubert (2006)
Clusiaceae offering floral resin. Flora
C. C. Davis (2004)
10.2307/4110535
Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons
K. L. Wilson (1990)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1993.tb15337.x
Pollinators of tropical dioecious angiosperms
S. Renner (1993)
10.1086/297178
Developmental Morphology of Reproductive Structures of Phyllospadix (Zosteraceae)
Connie L. Soros-Pottruff (1994)
10.2307/3391388
Floral morphology, embryology, and seed anatomy of Ruptiliocarpon caracolito (Lepidobotryaceae)
B. Hammel (1993)
10.1139/G06-059
Developmental characterization of the fasciated locus and mapping of Arabidopsis candidate genes involved in the control of floral meristem size and carpel number in tomato.
L. S. Barrero (2006)
10.1105/TPC.014365
INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION Controls Floral Organ Abscission in Arabidopsis and Identifies a Novel Family of Putative Ligands in Plants Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.014365.
M. Butenko (2003)
10.1111/J.1095-8339.2005.00445.X
Comparative floral structure and systematics in Celastrales (Celastraceae, Parnassiaceae, Lepidobotryaceae)
M. L. Matthews (2005)
10.1093/PCP/PCI080
Expression of the floral B-function gene SLM2 in female flowers of Silene latifolia infected with the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum.
Y. Kazama (2005)
10.1016/0169-5347(91)90039-Z
Cryptic dioecy in flowering plants.
S.S. Mayer (1991)
10.1111/j.1095-8312.1985.tb00398.x
Pollination in a cryptically dioecious plant Decaspermum parviflorum (Lam.) A.J. Scott (Myrtaceae) by pollen-collecting bees in Sulawesi, Indonesia
P. Kevan (1985)
unisexual flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
(1994)
The biology and systematics of Ebenaceae: a review
R. K. Higham (2001)
A taxonomic revision of the genus Heterosmilax (Simlacaceae)
T. Koyama (1984)
10.1086/422049
Heterodichogamy of a Novel Type in Hernandia (Hernandiaceae) and Its Structural Basis
P. K. Endress (2004)
10.1139/b77-127
Development of the inflorescence and flower of Sagittaria cuneata
V. Singh (1977)
10.1086/334872
Ontogenetic and Anatomical Studies of the Flower and Fruit of the Fagaceae and Juglandaceae
L. M. Langdon (1939)
10.1007/BF02860862
The inflorescence of Carex and related genera
D. L. Smith (2008)
10.1016/j.pbi.2010.08.013
Coordination of flower development by homeotic master regulators.
Toshiro Ito (2011)
10.1038/ng.2007.20
The maize tasselseed4 microRNA controls sex determination and meristem cell fate by targeting Tasselseed6/indeterminate spikelet1
G. Chuck (2007)
10.1016/J.SCIENTA.2010.02.009
Flower morphologic anatomy and embryological characteristics in Chrysanthemum multicaule (Asteraceae).
Yanming Deng (2010)
10.1017/S026646740400210X
Low fruit set in a dioecious tree: pollination ecology of Commiphora harveyi in South Africa
F. Voigt (2005)
10.1159/000121075
Plant sex chromosomes: molecular structure and function
M. Jamilena (2008)
10.1080/11263500600756199
An anatomical study of floral variation in Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. related to sexual dimorphism
E. Caporali (2006)
POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF TWO COLUMNAR CACTI (NEOBUXBAUMIA MEZCALAENSIS AND NEOBUXBAUMIA MACROCEPHALA) IN THE TEHUACAN VALLEY, CENTRAL MEXICO
R. Martínez (1997)
10.1186/1471-2229-6-11
Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)
R. Laitinen (2006)
10.1007/s00606-004-0184-5
Cryptic dioecy in Mammea (Clusiaceae)
M. Dunthorn (2004)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1979.tb06276.x
GENETIC AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF GROWTH, FLOWERING, AND SEX EXPRESSION IN PLANTS
M. K. Chaĭlakhyan (1979)
Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora
Cecil Yampolsky (2007)
10.1007/s11258-008-9430-1
Sex expression, female frequency, and reproductive output in a gynodioecious clonal herb, Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae)
Y. Zhang (2008)
10.1111/j.1095-8312.1990.tb00537.x
Cryptic dioecy and insect pollination in Rosa setigera Michx. (Rosaceae), a rare plant of Carolinian Canada.
P. Kevan (1990)
Utteridge. Contributions to the flora of Mt Jaya
(2009)
10.2307/2805832
Maracanthus, a new genus of Loranthaceae
J. Kuijt (1976)
10.1093/aob/mcq158
Floral ontogeny of Annonaceae: evidence for high variability in floral form.
F. Xu (2010)
10.1080/0028825X.1969.10429109
Dioecism in New Zealand escalloniaceae
B. F. Shore (1969)
Genetic Interrelations of Two Andromonoecious Types of Maize, Dwarf and Anther Ear.
R. A. Emerson (2003)
10.2307/2804874
Studies of the icacinaceae—VI. Irvingbaileya and codiocarpus, two new genera of the icacineae
R. Howard (1943)
10.1007/s00606-003-0062-6
Comparative floral ontogeny of Maesa (Maesaceae), Aegiceras (Myrsinaceae) and Embelia (Myrsinaceae): taxonomic and phylogenetic implications
O. Ma (2003)
10.3372/wi.32.32113
Humboldt & Bonpland's Cactaceae in the herbaria at Paris and Berlin
B. E. Leuenberger (2002)
10.1006/BOJL.1999.0299
Dioecy and wind pollination in Pernettya rigida (Ericaceae) of the Juan Fernández Islands
G. Anderson (2000)
10.1186/1471-2229-10-208
Dioecious Silene latifolia plants show sexual dimorphism in the vegetative stage
Jitka Žlůvová (2009)
endemic Chassalia corallioides (Rubiaceae)
J. A. Hart (1985)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1940.tb13945.x
THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE FLOWERS OF THE JUGLANDACEAE. II. THE PISTILLATE FLOWERS AND FRUIT
Wayne E. Manning (1940)
10.1111/J.1469-8137.2006.01726.X
Evolution of unisexual flowers in grasses (Poaceae) and the putative sex-determination gene, TASSELSEED2 (TS2).
S. Malcomber (2006)
10.1007/s00427-004-0459-4
Characterization of SpAPETALA3 and SpPISTILLATA, B class floral identity genes in Spinacia oleracea, and their relationship to sexual dimorphism
C. Pfent (2004)
10.1093/PCP/PCE076
The M locus and ethylene-controlled sex determination in andromonoecious cucumber plants.
S. Yamasaki (2001)
10.3732/ajb.92.4.752
Floral developmental evidence for the systematic position of Batis (Bataceae).
L. P. Ronse De Craene (2005)
10.1016/J.FLORA.2005.07.017
Flower development and anatomy of Clusia valerioi, a Central American species of Clusiaceae offering floral resin
H. Hochwallner (2006)
10.1016/j.pbi.2008.09.005
Flowering time regulation produces much fruit.
S. Michaels (2009)
10.1093/jxb/erq325
Arabidopsis and Tobacco SUPERMAN regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation
C. Nibau (2011)
10.1086/283342
A Model for the Evolution of Dioecy and Gynodioecy
B. Charlesworth (1978)
vine Akebia quinata (Lardizabalaceae)
Gouvea (2008)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1968.tb06960.x
DEVELOPMENT OF THE STAMINATE FLOWER IN THE DWARF MISTLETOE, ARCEUTHOBIUM
Leon I. Cohen (1968)
10.1104/pp.40.2.321
Determination of Relative Auxin Content in Hermaphrodite and Andromonoecious Cucumis sativus L.
E. Galun (1965)
10.1007/s12225-009-9137-z
The endemic genus Pancheria (Cunoniaceae) in New Caledonia: notes on morphology and the description of three new species
H. Hopkins (2009)
10.1086/505755
Floral Organogenesis of Cocculus orbiculatus and Stephania dielsiana (Menispermaceae)
H. Wang (2006)
10.1186/gb-2008-9-1-204
MicroRNA, sex determination and floral meristem determinacy in maize
J. Banks (2008)
10.1093/aob/mcq010
Spikelet structure and development in Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae): a monopodial general model based on ontogenetic evidence.
A. Vrijdaghs (2010)
10.1126/science.1141752
FT Protein Movement Contributes to Long-Distance Signaling in Floral Induction of Arabidopsis
L. Corbesier (2007)
10.1186/1471-2229-10-46
Functional analysis of B and C class floral organ genes in spinach demonstrates their role in sexual dimorphism
D. Noah Sather (2009)
Continuous variation among three species of Solanum sect . Anarrhichomenum ( Solanaceae ) : The synonymy of S . carchiense and S . tetrapetalum with S . sodiroi
G. J. Anderson (1999)
geographic range of floral dimorphism
S. S. Mayer (1991)
Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae)
(2010)
10.2307/3391864
Antidaphne hondurense Kuijt, a second Mesoamerican species of Eremolepidaceae
J. Kuijt (1998)
10.1104/pp.113.3.987
Identification of a 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Gene Linked to the Female (F) Locus That Enhances Female Sex Expression in Cucumber
T. Trebitsh (1997)
10.1071/bt9830585
Floral development of Maidenia rubra Rendle, (Hydrocharitaceae)
C. McConchie (1983)
10.1016/J.TPLANTS.2004.02.003
Towards a comprehensive integration of morphological and genetic studies of floral development.
Matyas Buzgo (2004)
10.1111/J.1420-9101.2005.01045.X
Population size, female fecundity, and sex ratio variation in gynodioecious Plantago maritima.
E. Nilsson (2006)
10.1086/337689
Floral Biology of Two Species of Actinidia (Actinidiaceae). II. Early Embryology
C. F. Harvey (1988)
10.1021/JF020269X
Differences in the fragrances of pollen and different floral parts of male and female flowers of Laurus nobilis.
G. Flamini (2002)
tremuloides Michx. Sex
Sheppard (2000)
Antirrhinum majus (Scrophulariaceae)
J. E. Armstrong (1986)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1990.tb13586.x
DIOECY AND A REEVALUATION OF LEPIDOCORDIA AND ANTROPHORA (BORAGINACEAE: EHRETIOIDEAE).
J. S. Miller (1990)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1993.tb13801.x
Flower development in dioecious Spinacia oleracea (Chenopodiaceae)
R. Sherry (1993)
10.1038/378199a0
Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries
Hajime Sakai (1995)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1983.tb06411.x
Organ initiation and the development of unisexual flowers in the tassel and ear of zea mays
P. Cheng (1983)
10.1006/BOJL.2001.0475
Ontogeny and morphology of the fertile flowers of Hydrangea and allied genera of tribe Hydrangeeae (Hydrangeaceae)
Larry A Hufford (2001)
10.1105/TPC.006353
Global Identification of Target Genes Regulated by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA Floral Homeotic Gene Action Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.006353.
M. Zik (2003)
10.1007/s00497-003-0171-y
Estradiol distribution during the development and expression of reproductive structures in Populus tremuloides Michx.
T. F. Khaleel (2003)
10.1086/428760
Organogenesis of the Inflorescence and Flowers in Platycarya strobilacea (Juglandaceae)
Rui-Qi Li (2005)
10.2307/3391386
Ruptiliocarpon (Lepidobotryaceae): A New Arborescent Genus and Tropical American Link to Africa, with a Reconsideration of the Family'
B. Hammel (1993)
10.2307/1938962
THE ECOLOGY OF SEX EXPRESSION IN RED BUCKEYE
R. Bertin (1982)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1940.tb13957.x
SOME FEATURES OF THE STRUCTURE OF TOXICODENDRON DIVERSILOBA
H. F. Copeland (1940)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1982.tb13414.x
THE ONTOGENY OF THE INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWER OF LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA L. (HAMAMELIDACEAE)
M. Wisniewski (1982)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1991.tb12577.x
FLORAL INITIATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT IN ERIGERON PHILADELPHICUS (ASTERACEAE)
E. M. Harris (1991)
10.1073/pnas.94.8.4217
Evidence for a common sex determination mechanism for pistil abortion in maize and in its wild relative Tripsacum.
D. Li (1997)
Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae)
J.M.M. Van Damme (1983)
Embelia (Myrsinaceae): taxonomic and phylogenetic implications
S. C. Tucker (1990)
The morphology and embryology of Cannabis sativa Linn
H. L. Shephard (2000)
Hippuris and Hydrostachys
P. A. Reeves (1998)
Some remarks on flower development and systematic position of the water plants Callitriche , Hippuris and Hydrostachys
P. A. Reeves (1998)
10.2307/3647395
A new interpretation of floral morphology in Garrya (Garryaceae)
A. Liston (2003)
10.1007/s00122-005-0058-4
Isolation of a partial sequence of a putative nucleotide sugar epimerase, which may involve in stamen development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
D. Terefe (2005)
Flowers and fruits in Flacourtiaceae. III. Some Oncobeae
W. V. Heel (1977)
10.1016/J.PLANTSCI.2006.01.015
Cytokinin-induced changes in CLAVATA1 and WUSCHEL expression temporally coincide with altered floral development in Arabidopsis
Donna L. Lindsay (2006)
10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08002
Adaptive significances of sexual system in andromonoecious Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae)
Tao Zhang (2008)
pubescens Pursch. (Ranunculaceae)
N. G. Beck (1988)
Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)
P. G. Kevan (1990)
Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ram.) blight caused by Ascochyta chrysanthemi Stev.
Antonio Romero García (1990)
10.1534/genetics.110.117697
The Birds and the Bees and the Flowers and the Trees: Lessons from Genetic Mapping of Sex Determination in Plants and Animals
D. Charlesworth (2010)
10.1016/j.tree.2008.09.010
The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomes.
R. Bergero (2009)
10.1105/tpc.6.12.1775
Comparison of MADS box gene expression in developing male and female flowers of the dioecious plant white campion.
S. Hardenack (1994)
10.1093/AOB/MCJ051
Programmed cell death in floral organs: how and why do flowers die?
H. Rogers (2006)
10.1007/978-3-662-03908-3_1
Gender and Sexual Dimorphism in Flowering Plants: A review of Terminology, Biogeographic Patterns, Ecological Correlates, and Phylogenetic Approaches
A. Sakai (1999)
10.2307/2656708
Sex ratios and genetic variation in a functionally androdioecious species, Schizopepon bryoniaefolius (Cucurbitaceae).
J. Akimoto (1999)
10.4161/psb.4.7.8849
Temperature-regulation of plant architecture
D. Patel (2009)
10.2307/2656906
Dissecting the causes of variation in intra-inflorescence allocation in a sexually polymorphic species, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae).
T. Ashman (2000)
10.1146/annurev-arplant-042110-103914
Sex chromosomes in land plants.
R. Ming (2011)
10.1111/J.1095-8312.1998.TB00335.X
Reproductive trait variation in the functionally dioecious and morphologically heterostylous island endemic Chassalia corallioides (Rubiaceae)
T. Pailler (1998)
10.1046/j.1440-1703.2002.00489.x
Floral sexual dimorphism and flower choice by pollinators in a nectarless monoecious vine Akebia quinata (Lardizabalaceae)
Tetsuhiro Kawagoe (2002)
10.30972/bon.611504
Estudios embriológicos y citológicos en la yerba mate Ilex Paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae)
Cesar Otto Niklas (1987)
10.3732/ajb.89.9.1373
Subdioecy in Consolea spinosissima (Cactaceae): breeding system and embryological studies.
L. I. Strittmatter (2002)
10.1071/BT07222
Embryology of the dioecious Australian endemic Lomandra longifolia (Lomandraceae)
N. Ahmad (2008)
10.2307/3668215
The Systematic Relationship between Begoniaceae and Papaveraceae: A Comparative Study of Their Floral Development
Lp Ronse Decraene (1990)
10.1007/BF01816091
Study of the inheritance of sex expression in the cucumber. The interaction of major genes with modifying genetic and non-genetic factors
E. Galun (2005)
10.1080/00173130500537101
Comparative microsporangium development in male‐fertile and male‐sterile flowers of Consolea (Cactaceae): When and how does pollen abortion occur
L. Strittmatter (2006)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1992.tb13748.x
FUNCTIONAL DIOECY IN ECHINOCEREUS COCCINEUS (CACTACEAE): BREEDING SYSTEM, SEX RATIOS, AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE OF FLORAL DIMORPHISM'
M. Hoffman (1992)
10.1126/science.143.3613.1452
Sensitivity of Female Inbreds of Cucumis sativus to Sex Reversion by Gibberellin
O. Shifriss (1964)
10.1086/334124
Floral Morphology of Arceuthobium americanum
E. Dowding
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1963.tb12242.x
MORPHOLOGICAL AND EMBRYOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE LEMNACEAE. I. THE FLORAL STRUCTURE AND GAMETOPHYTES OF LEMNA PAUCICOSTATA
S. C. Maheshwari (1963)
10.1073/PNAS.0606622103
Premature arrest of the male flower meristem precedes sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia
J. Zluvova (2006)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1996.tb12765.x
Pistillate and staminate flower development in dioecious Pistacia vera (Anacardiaceae).
J. Hormaza (1996)
10.1078/0367-2530-00090
Floral anatomy of Eriocaulon elichrysoides and Syngonanthus caulescens (Eriocaulaceae)
M. M. Rosa (2003)
10.1093/aob/mcq103
Cell cycle arrest characterizes the transition from a bisexual floral bud to a unisexual flower in Phoenix dactylifera.
Abdourahman Daher (2010)
10.1071/BT98027
Cyathodes divaricata (Epacridaceae)—the first record of a bird-pollinated dioecious plant in the Australian flora
R. Higham (2000)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1990.tb14465.x
Loss of floral organs in Ateleia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae).
S. Tucker (1990)
10.1086/342714
Development of Inflorescences and Flowers in Buxaceae and the Problem of Perianth Interpretation
M. Balthazar (2002)
10.1126/science.1159023
A Conserved Mutation in an Ethylene Biosynthesis Enzyme Leads to Andromonoecy in Melons
A. Boualem (2008)
10.1093/JHERED/ESG023
The development of two flanking SCAR markers linked to a sex determination locus in Salix viminalis L.
L. Gunter (2003)
10.1007/s00122-006-0293-3
MK17, a specific marker closely linked to the gynoecium suppression region on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia
R. Hobza (2006)
10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.12010155.x
Spatial expression dynamics of Men-9 delineate the third floral whorl in male and female flowers of dioecious Silene latifolia.
S. Robertson (1997)
10.1007/s004250100571
Isolation of a MADS-box gene (ERAF17) and correlation of its expression with the induction of formation of female flowers by ethylene in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.)
S. Ando (2001)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1988.tb11232.x
Dioecy in Bauhinia resulting from organ suppression
S. Tucker (1988)
10.1139/B99-026
The floral development and anatomy of Carica papaya (Caricaceae)
Lp Ronse Decraene (1999)
10.1007/BF00988909
Floral biology and reproductive ecology ofClusia nemorosa (Clusiaceae) in northeastern Brazil
A. V. Lopes (2004)
10.1111/J.1095-8339.1999.TB01844.X
Anatomy and morphology of Behnia (Behniaceae) and its relationships within Lilianae: Asparagales
J. Conran (1999)
10.1016/J.PLANTSCI.2009.11.001
Death of a tapetum : A programme of developmental altruism.
R. Parish (2010)
10.3732/ajb.92.7.1068
The evolution of unisexual flowers: morphological and functional convergence results from diverse developmental transitions.
C. Mitchell (2005)
10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04148.x
Seasonal and developmental timing of flowering.
R. Amasino (2010)
10.2307/4111021
A REVISION OF THE COMPOUND-LEAVED YAMS (DIOSCOREA, DIOSCOREACEAE) OF AFRICA
P. Wilkin (1999)
10.1038/nature08498
A transposon-induced epigenetic change leads to sex determination in melon
A. Martin (2009)
Crassulaceae. In Flowering Plants
Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard (2007)
10.1086/314268
Development of Male Flowers in Zizania aquatica (North American Wild-Rice; Gramineae).
Zaitchik (2000)
10.2307/4118004
A Note on Pseudohermaphrodism in Daphniphyllum macropodum miq.
S. G. Harrison (1951)
10.1002/j.1537-2197.1996.tb13941.x
DEVELOPMENTAL MORPHOLOGY OF FEMALE FLOWERS OF GYROSTEMON AND TERSONIA AND FLORAL EVOLUTION AMONG GYROSTEMONACEAE
Larry A Hufford (1996)
Chloranthaceae
C. A. Todzia (1990)
10.1111/j.1095-8312.1982.tb02031.x
Pollination of Androdioecious Xerospermum intermedium Radlk. (Sapindaceae) in a rain forest
S. Appanah (1982)
Morphology , vascualr anatomy and embyrology of pistillate and staminate flowers of Asperagus officinalis
J. Conran (1979)
Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology : advances and topical issues
T. Silva (2006)
10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092804
Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation.
S. Yamaguchi (2008)
10.1007/BF00937832
Pollination biology and sexual differentiation ofOsyris alba (Santalaceae) in the Mediterranean region
G. Aronne (1993)
10.3732/ajb.92.2.352
Molecular analyses of the genus Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) in southern South America, evidence from AFLP and ITS sequence data.
A. M. Gottlieb (2005)
10.1046/J.1469-8137.2000.00771.X
Sexual development and sex chromosomes in hop
H. Shephard (2000)
10.1007/BF00984652
Androecial development and systematics inFlacourtiaceae s. l.
A. Bernhard (2004)



This paper is referenced by
10.3389/fpls.2016.00160
The Quest for Molecular Regulation Underlying Unisexual Flower Development
Rómulo Sacramento Sobral (2016)
10.1101/023713
Multilocus sex determination revealed in two populations of gynodioecious wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata
T. Ashman (2015)
10.1002/ajb2.1254
Anatomy solves the puzzle of explosive pollen release in wind-pollinated urticalean rosids.
Giseli Donizete Pedersoli (2019)
10.15177/SEEFOR.16-02
Flower Bud Differentiation in Quercus suber L.
Maria Carolina Varela (2016)
10.1093/gigascience/giaa009
De novo genome assembly and Hi-C analysis reveal an association between chromatin architecture alterations and sex differentiation in the woody plant Jatropha curcas
Mao-Sheng Chen (2020)
10.1038/s41598-017-10732-0
Role of floral organ identity genes in the development of unisexual flowers of Quercus suber L.
Rómulo Sacramento Sobral (2017)
10.1016/J.FLORA.2014.06.011
Fruit set increases with maleness in the andromonoecious Acacia caven
A. Calviño (2014)
The pattern of dioecy in terrestrial, temperate plant succession
Jordan P. Sinclair (2013)
10.1007/978-94-007-7347-9_2
Trait transitions in explicit ecological and genomic contexts: plant mating systems as case studies.
V. Castric (2014)
10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.026
Sex Determination: Separate Sexes Are a Double Turnoff in Melons
Wen-juan Ma (2016)
10.1007/s12041-014-0326-7
Genetics of dioecy and causal sex chromosomes in plants
S. Kumar (2014)
10.1111/mec.14020
On the rarity of dioecy in flowering plants.
Jos Käfer (2017)
10.3389/fpls.2016.01953
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Gynoecious and Monoecious Plants Identifies Regulatory Networks Controlling Sex Determination in Jatropha curcas
Mao-Sheng Chen (2017)
10.3389/fpls.2015.00954
Proteomics: a promising tool for research on sex-related differences in dioecious plants
L. Yang (2015)
10.1086/683845
Floral Development of Parkia multijuga and Stryphnodendron adstringens, Two Andromonoecious Mimosoid Trees (Leguminosae)
G. D. Pedersoli (2016)
10.3389/fpls.2018.00594
Variation in Mutation Spectra Among CRISPR/Cas9 Mutagenized Poplars
E. Elorriaga (2018)
10.1101/2020.03.15.993022
Two antagonistic effect genes mediate separation of sexes in a fully dioecious plant
Liangjiao Xue (2020)
10.1139/CJB-2017-0203
Comparative anther and pollen tetrad development in functionally monoecious Pseuduvaria trimera (Annonaceae), and evolutionary implications for anther indehiscence
Guifang Yang (2018)
10.1101/2019.12.11.861377
The genetic basis of sex determination in grapevines (Vitis spp.)
Mélanie Massonnet (2019)
10.1093/JHERED/ESW060
A Century of Sex Determination in Flowering Plants.
Alex E. Harkess (2017)
10.1007/978-3-319-94139-4_3
Transitions Between Combined and Separate Sexes in Flowering Plants
John R. Pannell (2018)
10.1086/684262
Comparison of Floral Structure and Ontogeny in Monoecious and Dioecious Species of the Palm Tribe Chamaedoreeae (Arecaceae; Arecoideae)
Felipe Castaño (2016)
10.3389/fpls.2013.00487
Functional recapitulation of transitions in sexual systems by homeosis during the evolution of dioecy in Thalictrum
Nicole LaRue (2013)
10.1007/s00468-017-1525-7
Genomics of sex determination in dioecious trees and woody plants
B. Kersten (2017)
10.1111/tpj.13322
Overexpression of a flower‐specific aerolysin‐like protein from the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa alters flower development and induces male sterility in transgenic tobacco
S. Manzano (2017)
10.3389/fpls.2017.01291
Flower Development and Sex Determination between Male and Female Flowers in Vernicia fordii
Yingji Mao (2017)
10.1186/s12870-019-2081-7
Anatomy and RNA-Seq reveal important gene pathways regulating sex differentiation in a functionally Androdioecious tree, Tapiscia sinensis
Guiliang Xin (2019)
10.1007/978-94-007-7347-9
Ecological Genomics
P. Katsikis (2014)
10.1007/s13205-018-1176-4
Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of MADS-box genes associated with reproductive development in Momordica dioica Roxb.
J. Mohanty (2018)
Rates And Modes Of Sequence Evolution In Various Lineages Within Chenopodiaceae
James Andrew Naeger (2014)
10.1016/B978-0-12-800049-6.00142-6
Novel Structures in Plants, Developmental Evolution of
Natalia Pabón Mora (2016)
10.1111/nph.15916
The dynamic mosaic phenotypes of flowering plants.
Lawrence D Harder (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar