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Exosome-delivered Syndecan-1 Rescues Acute Lung Injury Via FAK/p190RhoGAP/RhoA/ROCK/NF-κB Signaling Axis And Glycocalyx Enhancement.

C. Zhang, F. Guo, Mengling Chang, Zengding Zhou, L. Yi, Chengjin Gao, Xiaoqin Huang, J. Huan
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine

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Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by protein-rich pulmonary edema, critical hypoxemia, and influx of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cells. There are currently no effective pharmacon therapies in clinical practice. Syndecan-1 in endothelial cells has potential to protect barrier function of endothelium and suppress inflammation response. Thus, the present study was to identify whether exosomes with encapsulation of syndecan-1 could achieve ideal therapeutic effects in ALI. Exosomes were isolated from the conditional medium of lentivirus-transfected mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVECs) and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and western blotting. ALI mouse models were induced via intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with exosomes. Lung edema, inflammation, and glycocalyx thickness were examined. The possible mechanism was verified by immunoblotting in MPMVECs. The purified exosomes included SDC1-high-Exos and SDC1-low-Exos which loaded with up-regulated syndecan-1 and down-regulated syndecan-1 respectively. Compared with SDC1-low-Exos, administration of SDC1-high-Exos could ameliorate lung edema and inflammation, attenuate number of cells and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and preserve glycocalyx. Furthermore, SDC1-high-Exos also mitigated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 following LPS challenge. In MPMVECs, SDC1-high-Exos decreased stress fiber formation and ameliorated monolayer hyper-permeability after LPS stimulation. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that FAK/p190RhoGAP/RhoA/ROCK/NF-κB signaling pathway may be involved in LPS-induced ALI. In conclusion, SDC1-high-Exos play a pivotal role in ameliorating LPS-stimulated ALI models and may be served as a potential therapeutic agent for clinical application in the future.
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