Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Impacts Of Breeding On International Collaborative Wheat Improvement

M. Reynolds, N. E. Borlaug
Published 2006 · Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
For over 40 years a collaborative network of publicly funded international wheat scientists has made a significant contribution to food security in the developing world. Thousands of modern wheat varieties (MVs) have been released for use in both favourable and marginal environments on well over 50 million hectares. The yield increases associated with genetic improvement in yield potential and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses are well documented. Millions of small-scale farmers in the developing world have benefited. While this so-called ‘Green Revolution’ displaced landraces in favour of more productive MVs, these and other genetic resources, held in trust by international organizations, have been utilized to improve the inherent genetic diversity of modern varieties. Furthermore, the result of increased yields reduced the need to bring natural ecosystems under cultivation, by as much as a billion hectares. Although international wheat breeding has its origins in the 1940s, recognition of a common scientific basis of agricultural problems worldwide was highlighted by the creation of International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) which included the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) established in 1965. This grew into a larger network called the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) now comprising 15 IARCs, including the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) established in Syria in 1977, another key player in the international wheat and barley breeding network. Two of the major coordination responsibilities of CIMMYT are maintaining the world collection of wheat genetic resources – a public good protected by international treaty – and the facilitation of the International Wheat Nurseries. After the initial impact of the Green Revolution in high production zones through exploitation of Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 dwarfing genes in conjunction with disease resistance, international breeding encompassed more challenging environments through, for example, international shuttle breeding between Brazil and Mexico to overcome problems associated with acid soils that restricted adoption of MVs. Another example is drought, which affects at least 30 million ha of wheat in the developing world. The approach focused initially on exploiting the inherent yield potential and disease resistance of MVs and later combined this with new stress-adaptive traits from wild wheat ancestors through wide crossing techniques. Adoption of modern varieties has increased substantially in drier areas between 1990 and 1997. In all environments, possibly the greatest threat to productivity is disease, especially those caused by fungal pathogens. International wheat breeding has placed great emphasis on genetic control of disease since resource-poor farmers generally lack the means to control diseases chemically.
This paper references
10.1016/S0007-1536(78)80068-0
Inheritance of slow rusting of spring wheat by Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici and host parasite relationships
Supranee Gavinlertvatana (1978)
10.2135/CROPSCI2002.1766
Dimensions of Diversity in Modern Spring Bread Wheat in Developing Countries from 1965
M. Smale (2002)
10.2135/CROPSCI1998.0011183X003800060011X
Wheat Yield Progress Associated with Higher Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthetic Rate, and Cooler Canopies
R. A. Fischer (1998)
Wheat breeding for acid soils: Review of Brasilian/CIMMYT collaboration 1974-1986
M. M. Kohli (1988)
Improved scab resistance in China : sources of resistance and problems
Z. Z. LIU (1991)
An analysis of the progress made in Brazil in breeding wheat for acid soils
M. M. KOHLI (1994)
10.1111/J.1439-0523.1994.TB01277.X
Resistance to Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica Mitra) in synthetic hexaploid wheats derived from Triticum turgidum × T. tauschii
R. Villareal (1994)
Detection of quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust resistance in bread
H. M. WILLIAM (1997)
10.1046/J.1439-037X.2001.00459.X
Selection of Barley Lines for Drought Tolerance in Low-Rainfall Areas
Y. Shakhatreh (2001)
Feeding a world of ten billion people: A 21 st century challenge
N. E. Borlaug (2005)
The man who fed India and Pakistan now turns to Africa
N. C. PAUL (2001)
CIMMYT ’ s laboratory method for screening wheat seedling tolerance to aluminum
J. LOPEZ-CESATI (1988)
Impacts of international wheat breeding research in the developing world
D. Byerlee (1993)
Impacts of international wheat breeding research in developing countries, 1966-97
P. Heisey (2002)
10.2135/CROPSCI2004.0663
Differential adaptation of CIMMYT bread wheat to global high temperature environments
Morten Lillemo (2005)
Barley breeding for areas receiving less than 250 mm annual rainfall
S. CECCARELLI (1985)
10.2135/CROPSCI1997.0011183X003700030033X
Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under four nitrogen rates
K. Sayre (1997)
10.1023/A:1017562909881
Wheat pre-breeding using wild progenitors
J. Valkoun (2004)
The wake of the double helix - From the green revolution to the gene revolution'
R. Henry (2006)
10.2135/CROPSCI2002.1441
Progress in breeding wheat for yield and adaptation in global drought affected environments
R. Trethowan (2002)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1078710
Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000
R. Evenson (2003)
10.1094/PD-77-1103
Genetic association of gene Bdv1 for tolerance to barley yellow dwarf virus with genes Lr 34 and Yr18 for adult plant resistance to rusts in bread wheat
R. Singh (1993)
Improvement in the yield
S. R. WADDINGTON (1986)
10.1139/B81-082
Cold hardiness of some relatives of hexaploid wheat
A. Limin (1981)
10.2135/CROPSCI1976.0011183X001600030004X
Genetic Resources in Wild Relatives of Crops 1
J. Harlan (1976)
Drought adaptive mechanisms from wheat landraces and wild relatives
M. P. REYNOLDS (2005)
10.1177/003072709902800107
Do Farmer-Participatory Methods Apply More to High Potential Areas Than to Marginal Ones?
J. R. Witcombe (1999)
Wheat breeders' perspectives on genetic diversity and germplasm use: Findings from an international survey
R. Rejesus (1996)
10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.7.881
Microsatellite markers for genes lr34/yr18 and other quantitative trait Loci for leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in bread wheat.
K. Suenaga (2003)
Winter wheat. In Plant Production and Protection Services
BRAUN (2002)
10.1017/S0021859606005879
Applying innovations and new technologies for international collaborative wheat improvement
M. Reynolds (2006)
10.1007/BF00023506
Genetic analysis of resistance to bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa in bread wheat
E. Duveiller (2004)
10.1177/156482650002100409
Breeding for Trace Minerals in Wheat
I. Monasterio (2000)
Billions served. Who has saved more human lives
R. BAILEY (2000)
Billions served . Who has saved more human lives ? Reason , April 2000
R. BAILEY (2000)
10.2135/CROPSCI1999.3961611X
Physiological and Genetic Changes of Irrigated Wheat in the Post–Green Revolution Period and Approaches for Meeting Projected Global Demand
M. Reynolds (1999)
10.2135/CROPSCI1986.0011183X002600040012X
Improvement in the Yield Potential of Bread Wheat Adapted to Northwest Mexico 1
S. Waddington (1986)
10.1139/G66-082
INHERITANCE OF ADULT-PLANT LEAF RUST RESISTANCE DERIVED FROM THE COMMON WHEAT VARIETIES EXCHANGE AND FRONTANA'
P. Dyck (1966)
10.1139/G92-004
Genetics of adult-plant resistance of leaf rust in 'Frontana' and three CIMMYT wheats
R. Singh (1992)
10.1007/s00122-004-1881-8
Wheat genetic diversity trends during domestication and breeding
J. C. Reif (2004)
General (slow rusting) resistance to Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in winter and spring wheats
R. M. CALDWELL (1970)
Wheat Improvement Facilitated by Novel Genetic Diversity and In vitro Technology
A. Mujeeb-Kazi (2003)
CIMMYT’s wheat breeding mega-environments (ME)
S. RAJARAM (1994)
10.1139/G87-007
Variability in Triticum and Aegilops species for seed characteristics
J. Waines (1987)
10.1111/J.1744-7348.2004.TB00363.X
Number of genes controlling slow rusting resistance to leaf rust in five spring wheat cultivars
M. Das (2004)
10.1017/S0021859605004971
A century of fungicide evolution
P. Russell (2005)
10.1023/A:1018387402918
Breeding wheat for resistance to biotic stresses
R. Mcintosh (2004)
of adult - plant resistance to leaf rust in ‘ Frontana ’ and three CIMMYT wheats
R. P. SINGH (1992)
The changing context for agricultural
L. T. 665–671. EVANS (2005)
10.2135/1993.INTERNATIONALCROPSCIENCE.C87
Use of wild Triticeae relatives for stress tolerance.
A. Mujeeb-Kazi (1993)
Utilization of landraces and Hordeum spontaneum in barley breeding for dry areas at ICARDA
S. Ceccarelli (1984)
Current CIMMYT approaches in breeding wheat for rust resistance
S. RAJARAM (1988)
Drought adaptation in wheat.
M. Reynolds (2006)
Barley breeding for areas receiving less than 250 mm annual rainfall.Rachis
S. CECCARELLI (1985)
10.2307/20048990
The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for All in the 21st Century
G. Conway (1999)
10.2135/CROPSCI1991.0011183X003100060024X
Quality Characteristics of the Langdon Durum-dicoccoides Chromosome Substitution Lines
L. R. Joppa (1991)
10.1007/s001220051061
Candidate gene analysis of quantitative disease resistance in wheat
J. Faris (1999)
Research on Pyrenophora tritici - repentis tan spot of wheat in Uruguay
E. Duveiller (1998)
Resistance to Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica Mitra) in synthetic hexaploid wheats derived from Triticum turgidumrT
R. L. VILLAREAL (1994)
10.1038/22307
‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators
J. Peng (1999)
10.1071/PP9940717
Physiological and Morphological Traits Associated with Spring Wheat Yield Under Hot, Irrigated Conditions
M. P. Reynolds (1994)
The Green Revolution peace and humanity.
Borlaug Ne (1970)
10.1111/J.1744-7348.2005.040058.X
Prospects for utilising plant‐adaptive mechanisms to improve wheat and other crops in drought‐ and salinity‐prone environments
M. Reynolds (2005)
10.4324/9780203840436
New seeds and poor people
M. Lipton (1989)
10.1094/PHYTO-60-1696
Zearalenone production in field corn in Indiana.
R. M. Caldwell (1970)
10.2134/AGRONJ1930.00021962002200120005X
A Successful Transfer of Emmer Characters to Vulgare Wheat1
Edgar S. McFadden (1930)
10.1094/PD-79-0893
Yield loss to spot blotch in spring bread wheat in warm nontraditional wheat production areas.
R. Villareal (1995)
10.2135/CSSASPECPUB17.C3
The Contribution of Introduced Germplasm to the Development of U.S. Wheat Cultivars
T. S. Cox (2015)
10.2134/AGRONJ1956.00021962004800020009X
Semidwarf Growth Habit in Winter Wheat Improvement for the Pacific Northwest1
O. Vogel (1956)
10.1023/A:1018647001429
Choice of selection strategy in breeding barley for stress environments
S. Ceccarelli (2004)
10.1146/ANNUREV.ARPLANT.55.031903.141655
How do crop plants tolerate acid soils? Mechanisms of aluminum tolerance and phosphorous efficiency.
L. Kochian (2004)
10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.7.703
Occurrence and Impact of a New Leaf Rust Race on Durum Wheat in Northwestern Mexico from 2001 to 2003.
R. P. Singh (2004)
10.1094/PD-79-1208
Characterization of Lr34, a major gene conferring nonhypersensitive resistance to wheat leaf rust.
D. Rubiales (1995)
10.1023/A:1017570702689
Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia
S. Ceccarelli (2004)
10.2135/CROPSCI1997.0011183X003700020014X
Effect of Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr34 on Grain Yield and Agronomic Traits of Spring Wheat
R. Singh (1997)
Improved scab resistance in China: sources of resistance and problems. In Wheat for the Nontraditional Warm Areas, A
Z. Z. LIU (1991)
Alien gene transfer and genetic enrichment of bread wheat.
P. Jauhar (1993)
10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60819-6
Evaluation and Documentation of Genetic Resources in Cereals
A. Damania (1990)
Are marginal wheat environments catching up ?
R. Lal (2002)
Acid soils and aluminum toxicity
A. R. HEDE (2001)
10.2135/CROPSCI1992.0011183X003200060022X
Environments for selecting widely adapted spring wheat
H. Braun (1992)
10.1093/JXB/36.7.1021
Salt Tolerance in the Triticeae: Growth and Solute Accumulation in Leaves of Thinopyrum bessarabicum
J. Gorham (1985)
The economic impact in developing countries of leaf rust resistance breeding in CIMMYT-related spring bread wheat
C. Marasas (2004)
10.1017/S002185960007951X
The yield of durum wheats released in Mexico between 1960 and 1984
S. Waddington (1987)
Molecular marker service laboratory at CIMMYT: an interface between the laboratory and field
H. M. WILLIAM (2003)
10.1038/111665e0
Causes and Consequences
F. Welch (1923)
Causes and Consequences
Michael Marcus (1969)
10.1139/G97-036
Detection of quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust resistance in bread wheat.
H. William (1997)
10.2135/CROPSCI2001.4151461X
Relationships among Bread Wheat International Yield Testing Locations in Dry Areas
R. Trethowan (2001)
CIMMYT’s laboratory method for screening wheat seedling tolerance to aluminum. In Wheat Breeding for Acid Soils: Review of Brazilian/CIMMYT Collaboration, 1974–1986
J. LOPEZ-CESATI (1988)
Are marginal wheat environments catching up? In CIMMYT World Wheat Overview and Outlook 2000–2001, Developing No-till Packages for Small-Scale Farmers
M. A. LANTICAN (2002)
Use of wild relatives in barley breeding
S. GRANDO (1985)
10.1016/B978-0-407-00780-2.50005-9
Chapter 1 – Dwarfing genes in wheat
M. D. Gale (1985)
10.1007/BF00022840
CIMMYT's approach to breed for drought tolerance
S. Rajaram (2004)
Transferring alien genes from related species and genera for wheat improvement
A. MUJEEB-KAZI (2002)
Novel source of increased spike fertility
M P. (1998)
10.1007/BF00023766
Genetics of adult plant resistance to stripe rust in ten spring bread wheats
R. Singh (2004)
Impacts of International Wheat Breeding Research in the Developing World, 1988-2002
M. A. Lantican (2005)
BREEDING FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE IN WHEAT; THE
Brazilian Experience (1983)
10.2135/CROPSCI1997.0011183X003700010006X
Yield potential progress in short bread wheats in Northwest Mexico
K. Sayre (1997)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PHYTO.34.1.435
Genetics of resistance to wheat leaf rust.
J. Kolmer (1996)
10.1002/9780470168028.CH2
The Genetic Basis of the Green Revolution in Wheat Production
R. Trethowan (2007)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PP.29.060178.002455
The Physiology of Metal Toxicity in Plants
C. Foy (1978)
10.1023/A:1017528025501
Mining wheat germplasm collections for yield enhancing traits
B. Skovmand (2004)
10.1094/PD-70-553
Resistance in Aegilops squarrosa to wheat leaf rust, wheat powdery mildew, greenbug, and Hessian fly
B. Gill (1986)
Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat
R. McIntosh (1998)
10.1007/BF00023642
Genetic variation for resistance to Fusarium head blight in bread wheat
C. H. A. Snijders (2004)
10.1201/9780203026472.CH4
Historical Development of No-Till Farming
R. Lal (2004)
Archaeology: Lessons on future soil use
Gerald W. Olson (1981)
10.1007/BF02262633
Specific adaptation and breeding for marginal conditions
S. Ceccarelli (2005)
Wheat physiology at CIMMYT and raising the yield plateau
R. A. Fischer (1996)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PY.19.090181.000353
Causes and Consequences of the 1976-1977 Wheat Leaf Rust Epidemic in Northwest Mexico
and H J Dubin (1981)
10.1023/A:1022216327934
Effect of leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 on components of slow rusting at seven growth stages in wheat
R. Singh (2004)
10.1007/BF00730673
Yield potential and drought tolerance of segregating populations of barley in contrasting environments
S. Ceccarelli (2004)
10.1111/J.1744-7348.2005.040137.X
Adapting wheat cultivars to resource conserving farming practices and human nutritional needs
R. Trethowan (2005)
The CIMMYT Wheat Program's international multi-environment trials.
P. Fox (1996)
Sustainable control of wheat diseases in Mexico
R. Singh (1997)
10.1007/s00122-005-2058-9
Powdery mildew resistance and Lr34/Yr18 genes for durable resistance to leaf and stripe rust cosegregate at a locus on the short arm of chromosome 7D of wheat
W. Spielmeyer (2005)
10.1017/S0021859604004460
The changing context for agricultural science
L. Evans (2005)
10.1016/0305-750X(95)00162-6
Modern varieties, productivity, and sustainability : recent experience and emerging challenges
D. Byerlee (1996)
10.2135/CROPSCI2003.1698
Associations among Twenty Years of International Bread Wheat Yield Evaluation Environments
R. Trethowan (2003)
10.2135/CROPSCI1998.0011183X003800030006X
Genetic Progress in Reducing Losses to Leaf Rust in CIMMYT‐Derived Mexican Spring Wheat Cultivars
K. D. Sayre (1998)
10.1007/BF00041482
Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan
S. Ceccarelli (2004)
The Green Revolution--Its Origins and Contributions to World Agriculture
N. E. Borlaug (2003)
10.1007/s00122-003-1444-4
Dissection of quantitative and durable leaf rust resistance in Swiss winter wheat reveals a major resistance QTL in the Lr34 chromosomal region
T. Schnurbusch (2004)
Genetic dangers in the green revolution.
O. Frankel (1970)
Production and utilization of D genome synthetic hexaploids in wheat improvement
A. MUJEEB-KAZI (1998)
Mexico: 50 years of international wheat breeding
S. RAJARAM (2001)
Wheat Rust in Asia: Meeting the Challenges with Old and New Technologies
R. Singh (2004)
10.1094/PD-80-0066
Contribution of adult plant resistance gene Yr18 in protecting wheat from yellow rust
H. Ma (1996)
Assessing the impact of the Green Revolution
R. Evenson (2003)



This paper is referenced by
10.1201/B10329-39
Genetic Factors Affecting Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crops
Mohammad Pessarakli (2010)
10.2135/CROPSCI2011.09.0467
Genetic Yield Gains and Changes in Associated Traits of CIMMYT Spring Bread Wheat in a “Historic” Set Representing 30 Years of Breeding
M. Lopes (2012)
10.1007/s10681-007-9413-7
A 192bp allele at the Xgwm261 locus is not always associated with the Rht8 dwarfing gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
M. Ellis (2007)
Genetic and molecular marker analysis of stripe rust resistance in crosses of wheat variety HD 2967 with exotic donors
D. Varun (2017)
10.1017/S0021859615000155
Exploring the supply and demand factors of varietal turnover in Indian wheat
V. V. Krishna (2016)
Association mapping for detecting QTLs for Fusarium head blight and yellow rust resistance in bread wheat
Carlos Esteban Falconi-Castillo (2014)
10.1016/j.pbi.2008.02.005
Translational research impacting on crop productivity in drought-prone environments.
M. Reynolds (2008)
10.1016/B978-0-12-374431-9.00015-3
Chapter 15 – Genetic Improvement of Grain Crops: Yield Potential
M. Foulkes (2009)
Relationship of occurrence and development of powdery mildew of wheat with weather parameters and its management
Sarbpreet Singh (2014)
Evaluation of cultivation, legume undersowing and nitrogen interventions on wheat development
Rial Lovera (2015)
INSIGHT INTO HEAT TOLERANCE AND GRAIN YIELD IMPROVEMENT IN WHEAT IN WARM RAINFED REGIONS OF IRAN
M. Mohammadi (2012)
10.1017/S0021859606006459
Adoption and economic impact of improved wheat varieties in the developing world
J. Dixon (2006)
10.1002/9781118358566.CH2
Phenotyping, Genetic Dissection, and Breeding for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Common Wheat: Status and Prospects
P. Gupta (2012)
10.22267/RCIA.153202.11
Evaluación de sistemas de selección en ambientes alternados e in situ en trigo Triticum aestivum L.
D. Campuzano (2015)
Reconciling traditional knowledge with modern agriculture: a guide for building bridges.
K. Ammann (2007)
10.1016/j.nbt.2008.08.012
Integrated farming: why organic farmers should use transgenic crops.
K. Ammann (2008)
10.1002/9780470168028.CH1
Dedication: Norman E. Borlaug The Humanitarian Plant Scientist Who Changed the World
R. Ortiz (2007)
10.1007/s12892-020-00041-w
Progress check of yielding ability and stability of selected pre-release bread-wheat cultivars in Zimbabwe
Peter Mavindidze (2020)
10.1111/aab.12274
Triticum monococcum lines with distinct metabolic phenotypes and phloem‐based partial resistance to the bird cherry–oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi
A.F.C. Greenslade (2016)
10.1093/jxb/erq311
Raising yield potential of wheat. I. Overview of a consortium approach and breeding strategies.
M. Reynolds (2011)
10.5958/J.0975-6906.74.1.001
Postulation of resistance genes and assessment of adult plant response variation for stripe rust in three international wheat nurseries
B. Singh (2014)
10.1017/S0021859606005879
Applying innovations and new technologies for international collaborative wheat improvement
M. Reynolds (2006)
10.1016/J.CROPRO.2012.06.017
Effective invertebrate pest management in dryland cropping in southern Australia: The challenge of marginality
M. Nash (2012)
10.1016/B978-1-891127-55-7.50009-4
CHAPTER 2 – The Wheat Crop
M. Gooding (2009)
10.2478/v10046-012-0020-1
Swimming in the Breeding Pool: Partnering for Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources through Crop Germplasm Enhancement
R. Ortiz (2012)
10.2135/CROPSCI2009.10.0626
Distribution of Rht Genes in Modern and Historic Winter Wheat Cultivars from the Eastern and Central USA
M. Guedira (2010)
10.1007/s10681-006-9304-3
Relationships between height and yield in near-isogenic spring wheats that contrast for major reduced height genes
S. Chapman (2006)
10.1007/s10681-020-02669-9
Synthetic hexaploid wheat as a source of novel genetic loci for aluminium tolerance
L. Emebiri (2020)
Wheat Breeding at ICARDA: Achievements and Prospects in the CWANA Region
W. Tadesse (2017)
International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research
Angelita Puji Lestari (2016)
Flows under Stress: Availability of Plant Genetic Resources in Times of Climate and Policy Change. CCAFS Working Paper No. 18.
I. Lopez-Noriega (2012)
10.1093/jxb/erv122
Exploiting genetic diversity from landraces in wheat breeding for adaptation to climate change.
Marta Lopes (2015)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar