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Targeted Drug Delivery Utilizing Protein-like Molecular Architecture.
Published 2007 · Medicine, Chemistry
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nanoDDSs) have seen recent popularity due to their favorable physical, chemical, and biological properties, and great efforts have been made to target nanoDDSs to specific cellular receptors. CD44/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) is among the receptors overexpressed in metastatic melanoma, and the sequence to which it binds within the type IV collagen triple-helix has been identified. A triple-helical "peptide-amphiphile" (alpha1(IV)1263-1277 PA), which binds CD44/CSPG, has been constructed and incorporated into liposomes of differing lipid compositions. Liposomes containing distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) as the major bilayer component, in combination with distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG) and cholesterol, were more stable than analogous liposomes containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) instead of DSPC. When dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC):DSPG:cholesterol liposomes were prepared, monotectic behavior was observed. The presence of the alpha1(IV)1263-1277 PA conferred greater stability to the DPPC liposomal systems and did not affect the stability of the DSPC liposomes. A positive correlation was observed for cellular fluorophore delivery by the alpha1(IV)1263-1277 PA liposomes and CD44/CSPG receptor content in metastatic melanoma and fibroblast cell lines. Conversely, nontargeted liposomes delivered minimal fluorophore to these cells regardless of the CD44/CSPG receptor content. When metastatic melanoma cells and fibroblasts were treated with exogeneous alpha1(IV)1263-1277, prior to incubation with alpha1(IV)1263-1277 PA liposomes, to potentially disrupt receptor/liposome interactions, a dose-dependent decrease in the amount of fluorophore delivered was observed. Overall, our results suggest that PA-targeted liposomes can be constructed and rationally fine-tuned for drug delivery applications based on lipid composition. The selectivity of alpha1(IV)1263-1277 PA liposomes for CD44/CSPG-containing cells represents a targeted-nanoDDS with potential for further development and application.