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On The Nature Of Defects In Liquid-Phase Exfoliated Graphene

M. Bracamonte, G. I. Lacconi, S. Urreta, Luis E. F. Foa Torres
Published 2014 · Chemistry, Physics

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Liquid-phase exfoliation is one of the most promising routes for large-scale production of multilayer graphene dispersions. These dispersions, which may be used in coatings, composites, or paints, are believed to contain disorder-free graphene multilayers. Here, we address the nature of defects in such samples obtained by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite powder in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Our Raman spectroscopy data challenge the assumption that these multilayers are free of bulk defects, revealing that defect localization strongly depends on the sonication time. For short ultrasound times, defects are located mainly at the layer edges but they turn out to build up in the bulk for ultrasonic times above 2 h. This knowledge may help to devise better strategies to achieve high-quality graphene dispersions.
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