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In Vitro Mineralization By Preosteoblasts In Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) Inverse Opal Scaffolds Reinforced With Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles.
Published 2010 · Chemistry, Medicine
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Inverse opal scaffolds made of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) were fabricated using cubic-closed-packed (ccp) lattices of uniform gelatin microspheres as templates and evaluated for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds exhibited a uniform pore size (213 +/- 4.4 microm), a porosity of approximately 75%, and an excellent connectivity in three dimensions. Three different formulations were examined: pure PLGA, HAp-impregnated PLGA (PLGA/HAp), and apatite (Ap)-coated PLGA/HAp. After seeding with preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), the samples were cultured for different periods of time and then characterized by X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate osteoinductivity in terms of the amount and spatial distribution of mineral secreted from the differentiated preosteoblasts. Our results indicate that preosteoblasts cultured in the Ap-coated PLGA/HAp scaffolds secreted the largest amount of mineral, which was also homogeneously distributed throughout the scaffolds. In contrast, the cells in the pure PLGA scaffolds secreted very little mineral, which was mainly deposited around the perimeter of the scaffolds. These results suggest that the uniform pore structure and favorable surface properties could facilitate the uniform secretion of extracellular matrix from cells throughout the scaffold. The Ap-coated PLGA/HAp scaffold with uniform pore structure could be a promising material for bone tissue engineering.