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High Temperature Effects On Photosynthesis And Water Relations Of Grain Legumes

G. McDonald, G. Paulsen
Published 2004 · Biology

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Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis, and its interaction with water relations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), faba bean (Vicia faba), and five cultivars of field pea (Pisum sativum) were investigated. Responses of all species were compared at 20/15, 30/15, or 30/25 °C day/night, and cowpea and pea were compared at 20/15 and 30/25 °C under well-watered and limited-water conditions. Response of pea to 20/15 and 30/25 °C during flowering was ascertained, and sensitivity of the photosystem of pea and faba bean to 40 °C was determined.High temperature decreased chlorophyll variable fluorescence (Fv), a measure of injury to photosynthesis, in all species except cowpea, which was highly tolerant. Leaf chlorophyll and most measures of growth were favored by high day temperature but not by high night temperature, and photosynthetic rates were enhanced by high temperatures that increased leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen (N) contents. High temperature diminished growth less than water deficiency and increased water use of all three species but only lowered the water potential in faba bean. Water deficiency generally decreased growth, water use, and water potential more at 30/25 °C than at 20/15 °C. Stress from high temperature during flowering of pea decreased all components of yield at maturity, particularly at nodes that flowered latest. Whole-chain photosynthetic activity in thylakoids of pea, faba bean, and wheat (Triticum aestivum) were equally sensitive to high temperature, suggesting that Photosystem Il was the most labile component. The results show that high temperature affects photosynthesis, growth, and water relations of grain legumes, and sensitivity to the stress differs among species and genotypes.
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