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Tolerability And Absorption Enhancement Of Intranasally Administered Octreotide By Sodium Taurodihydrofusidate In Healthy Subjects
Published 2004 · Medicine
Nasal sprays containing different concentrations of the somatostatin analogue octreotide and sodium tauro-24,25-dihydrofusidate (STDHF) as an absorption promoter were evaluated in two consecutive pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers to characterize their bioavailability and local tolerability. The concentrations of STDHF were selected on the basis of a phase diagram generated by a dynamic laser light-scattering technique to ensure that the mixture was above the critical micellar concentrations. Compared to a 50-µg subcutaneous injection, the nasal spray formulation without STDHF had a mean relative bioavailability of 17.9%. For nasal formulations containing 3 and 1.65% (w/v) of STDHF, the bioavailability increased to 29.0 and 25.7%, respectively. The enhancement of nasal absorption was dependent on the STDHF concentrations as shown by decreasing the amounts to 1.2 and 0.8% (w/v) for tolerability reasons; the bioavailability was reduced to 15.3 and 20.5% in these cases, respectively. The local tolerability of all STDHF-containing sprays was poor, leading to stinging sensations and lacrimation. The poor local tolerability of the octreotide nasal spray containing different concentrations of STDHF required for effective nasal absorption enhancement appears to be impractical for further clinical development. These findings clearly stress the necessity to investigate tolerability and safety issues of new drug delivery systems in early developmental phases.