Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

The Scope Of Rape: Incidence And Prevalence Of Sexual Aggression And Victimization In A National Sample Of Higher Education Students.

M. Koss, C. Gidycz, N. Wisniewski
Published 1987 · Psychology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Because of inadequacies in the methods used to measure sexual assault, national crime statistics, criminal victimization studies, convictions, or incarceration rates fail to reflect the true scope of rape. Studies that have avoided the limitations of these methods have revealed very high rates of overt rape and lesser degrees of sexual aggression. The goal of the present study was to extend previous work to a national basis. The Sexual Experiences Survey was administered to a national sample of 6,159 women and men enrolled in 32 institutions representative of the diversity of higher education settings across the United States. Women's reports of experiencing and men's reports of perpetrating rape, attempted rape, sexual coercion, and sexual contact were obtained, including both the rates of prevalence since age 14 and of incidence during the previous year. The findings support published assertions of high rates of rape and other forms of sexual aggression among large normal populations. Although the results are limited in generalizabil ity to postsecondary students, this group represents 26% of all persons aged 18-24 in the United States. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines rape as "carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her consent" and reports that 87,340 such offenses occurred in 1985 (FBI, 1986). However, these figures greatly underestimate the true scope of rape because they are based only on instances reported to police. Government estimates suggest that for every rape reported, 3-10 rapes are committed but not reported (Law Enforcement Assistance Administration [LEAA], 1975). Likewise, it is difficult to obtain realistic estimates of the number of men who perpetrate rape because only a fraction of reported rapes eventually result in conviction (Clark & Lewis, 1977). Victimization studies, such as the annual National Crime Survey (NCS), are the major avenue through which the full extent of the crime is estimated (e.g., Bureau of Justice Statistics [BJS], 1984). In these studies, the residents of a standard sampling area are asked to indicate those crimes of which they or anyone else in their household have been victims during the previous 6 months. These rates are then compared with official crime statistics for the area and the rate of unreported crime is esti
This paper references
Personality and attitudinal characteristics of sexually coercive college males.
K. Rapaport (1984)
Rape: The Price of Coercive Sexuality
L. M. Clark (1977)
Personality and attitudinal characteristics of sexually coercive college males.
K. Rapaport (1984)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed
A. Cooper (1981)
Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
J. Cohen (1969)
Sexual Experiences Survey: a research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization.
M. Koss (1982)
Male Sex Aggression on a University Campus
C. Kirkpatrick (1957)
Sexual Assault Among Adolescents
Suzanne S. Ageton (1983)
Sexual aggression: A second look
E. J. Kanin (1977)
Mental health correlates of crimi
L. A. teaux (1985)
Male Aggression in Dating-Courtship Relations
Eugene J. Kanin (1957)
Sexual aggression: A second look at the offended female
E. J. Kanin (1977)
Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse, and Workplace Harassment
D. Russell (1984)
Crimes and victims: A report on the Dayton-San Jose pilot study of victimization. Washington, DC: National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service
C. B. Kalish (1974)
Adolescent sex offenders--Vermont, 1984.
Cultural myths and supports for rape.
M. Burt (1980)
Mental health correlates of criminal victimization: a random community survey.
D. Kilpatrick (1985)
On the prevalence of rape in the United States
A. G. Johnson (1980)
Victimology and rape: The case of the legitimate victim.
Kurt Weis (1973)
Nonstranger sexual aggression: A discriminant analysis of the psychological characteristics of undetected offenders
M. Koss (1985)
Sexual Experiences Survey: Reli
M. P. 193-212. Koss (1985)
The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics
M. Koss (1985)
Personality and attitudinal
K. Rapaport (1984)
On the Prevalence of Rape in the United States
A. Johnson (1980)
Sexual exploitation: Rape, child sexual abuse, and workplace harassment: Volume 155. By Diana E. H. Russell. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1984. 319 pages. $14.50, softcover
D. Moore (1987)
Sexual experiences survey: reliability and validity.
M. Koss (1985)
Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences: (revised edition), by Jacob Cohen. New York: Academic Press, 1977, xv + 474 pp., $24.50.
Alan L. Sockloff (1978)

This paper is referenced by
Perceptions of coercive sexual behavior by males and females
L. T. Garcia (1989)
Rape. Scope, impact, interventions, and public policy responses.
M. Koss (1993)
Dangerous Promises: Amerikansk Kampanj Mot Alkoholindustrins Marknadsföringsmetoder
K. Woodruff (1995)
On the Validity of Self-Reported Rates of Interpersonal Violence
N. Hilton (1998)
Rape by Acquiescence
K. Basile (1999)
Male Sexual Behavior: Revisiting the EIU Sexual Experience Survey and Report
J. W. Freeman (2000)
An event-based analysis of aggression women experience in bars.
K. Parks (2000)
Revisiting America's "date rape" controversy
Alexandra Neame (2004)
Normative Violence? The Impact of Gender-neutral Language on Self-reported Rates of Sexual Violence Victimization and Perpetration
Elizabeth R. Anthony (2008)
Being Pursued and Pursuing during the College Years: Their Extent, Nature, and Impact of Stalking on College Campuses
Bonnie S. Fisher (2001)
Self-Reports of Sexual, Physical, and Nonphysical Abuse Perpetration
Sarah L Cook (2002)
The victimization-substance relationship: an examination of nonconsensual sexual experiences and post-assault substance use
Jessica A. Melillo (2014)
Something to talk about: An examination of predictors of immediate versus delayed sexual assault disclosure
Ashlyn G. Swartout (2011)
Campus Sexual Assault Prevention: Supporting Male Student Allies in an Effort to Sustain Engagement
Travis Anan (2009)
Definition of sexual aggression and prevalence in adolescence
B. Krahé (2014)
Testing of a Brief Internet Cyberbullying Prevention Program in College Students
A. Doane (2011)
'It shouldn't have to be this way' : a focus group analysis of rape myths in Clery act timely warnings
L. Heck (2016)
Victim Empathy as a Function of Attachment Style, Sex, Self-Esteem and Type of Victimization
Molly Ann Hedrick (2004)
Event-Specific and Individual Factors Impacting College Students’ Decisions to Intervene During a Potentially Risky Scenario: A Vignette Study
Chrystina Y. Hoffman (2019)
Alcohol and sexual behaviour
A. R. Markos (2005)
Objectification theory: An introduction.
Rachel M Calogero (2011)
Analysis of cases of rape as seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, North Central Nigeria.
P. Daru (2011)
University of Groningen Belief in a JustWorld, Causal Attributions, and Adjustment to Sexual Violence Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Jacobs, Gabriele; Belschak, Frank
Detlef Fetchenhauer (2005)
Perception vs. Circumstances of the Child Sexual Abuse Event in Relation to Depression and Post-traumatic Stress Symptomatology
Rachel Lev-Wiesel (2013)
A dangerous transition: women's drinking and related victimization from high school to the first year at college.
K. Parks (2008)
Rape and Other Sexual Assault
A. Spivak (2015)
Correlates of Problem Drinking and Drug Use in Black Sexual Assault Victims
L. Long (2016)
Voices From Liminal Spaces: Narratives of Unacknowledged Rape
D. J. Johnstone (2013)
Alcohol and sexual risk behaviors as mediators of the sexual victimization-revictimization relationship.
M. Testa (2010)
Sexual Assault Prevention With College-Aged Women: A Bibliotherapy Approach
E. Yeater (2004)
Health consequences of sexual hookups for first-year college women: A one-year prospective investigation
Robyn L. Fielder (2013)
Method behind the madness: An examination of stalking measurements
K. Fox (2011)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar