Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Motivational Factors In Decision Theories : The Role Of Self-protection

R. P. Larrick
Published 1993 · Psychology

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
This article reviews the standard economic and cognitive models of decision making under risk and describes the psychological assumptions that underlie these models. It then reviews important motivational factors that are typically underemphasized by the standard theories, including the motivation to protect one's self-image from failure and regret. An integrated view of decision making is offered on the basis of a more comprehensive set of psychological assumptions
This paper references
10.1037/H0026468
Relative importance of probabilities and payoffs in risk taking
P. Slovic (1968)
10.1016/0749-5978(90)90046-C
The preservation of self in everyday life: The effects of performance expectations and feedback context on feedback inquiry
G. Northcraft (1990)
10.1037/H0043445
Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior.
J. Atkinson (1957)
Old and new conceptions of how expected consequences influence actions
J. W Atkinson (1983)
10.1287/opre.27.4.810
Measurable Multiattribute Value Functions
J. Dyer (1979)
10.1007/BF00134074
Individual behavior under risk and under uncertainty: An experimental study
M. Cohen (1985)
Group vs individual information processing
R. S. Tindale (1989)
10.1037/0022-3514.51.2.451
The role of uncertain self-esteem in self-handicapping.
R. Harris (1986)
Rational choice and the framing of decisions [ Special issue ]
A. Tversky (1986)
10.1521/JSCP.1989.8.1.14
Effects of upward and downward social comparison on mood states.
F. Gibbons (1989)
10.1037/0022-3514.56.6.907
Regulating affect interpersonally: When low esteem leads to greater enhancement.
A. H. Baumgardner (1989)
10.1016/0169-2070(88)90123-9
Journal of business: Lupoletti, William M. and Roy H. Webb, 1986, Defining and improving the accuracy of macroeconomic forecasts; contributions from a VAR model, 59, 263-284
R. Fildes (1988)
Self-esteem and reac
J. Brockner (1987)
10.1037//0022-3514.64.6.885
Self-image resilience and dissonance: the role of affirmational resources.
C. Steele (1993)
10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60212-9
Recent Research on Selective Exposure to Information
Dieter Frey (1986)
10.1037/0022-3514.60.5.711
Esteem protection or enhancement ? self-handicapping motives and attributions differ by trait self-esteem
Dianne M. Tice (1991)
10.1007/BF00057884
Preference and belief: Ambiguity and competence in choice under uncertainty
C. Heath (1991)
10.1037/0022-3514.49.4.981
Self-enhancement, self-assessment, and self-evaluative task choice.
M. J. Strube (1985)
Pleasure and pain in social comparison
P. Brickman (1977)
10.1016/0030-5073(80)90037-9
Prospect theory's reflection hypothesis: A critical examination
J. Hershey (1980)
10.1111/J.1559-1816.1990.TB00381.X
Reactions to Feedback about Performance: A Test of Three Competing Models1
P. D. Sweeney (1990)
10.1016/0169-2070(92)90085-N
Journal of behavioral decision making: "The need for contextual and technical knowledge in judgmental forecasting", 5 (1992) 39-52
Nada R. Sanders (1992)
10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.193
Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health.
S. Taylor (1988)
Individual differences in risk tak
P. Bromiley (1992)
10.1016/0749-5978(86)90016-6
Humility revisited: Self-esteem, information search, and policy consistency
P. A. Knight (1986)
Expectations and actions : expectancy-value models in psychology
N. Feather (1982)
The utility of humility: Self-es
H. M. Weiss (1980)
A theory of achievement motivation
J. Atkinson (1974)
10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60227-0
Toward a Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model of Social Behavior
A. Tesser (1988)
10.2307/2226986
Principles of Economics.
J. Hicks (1951)
10.1086/209205
Choice Based on Reasons: The Case of Attraction and Compromise Effects
I. Simonson (1989)
10.2307/2343229
Principles of Economics
A. Marshall (1890)
Esteem protection or enhancement ? Self - handicapping motives differ by trait self - esteem
D. M. Tice (1991)
Old and new conceptions of how expected
Atkinson (1983)
10.1111/J.1467-6494.1989.TB02384.X
Self-Presentational Motivations and Personality Differences in Self-Esteem
R. Baumeister (1989)
10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60229-4
The Psychology of Self-Affirmation: Sustaining the Integrity of the Self
C. Steele (1988)
10.1007/978-1-4684-8956-9_2
Low Self-Esteem: The Uphill Struggle for Self-Integrity
S. Spencer (1993)
Motivational correlates of probability preference
Littig (1966)
10.1037/10319-006
Level of aspiration.
K. Lewin (1944)
10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.525
Strategic failure in social interaction: Evidence for expectancy disconfirmation processes.
A. H. Baumgardner (1987)
10.1037/0022-3514.57.3.426
Social Utility and Decision Making in Interpersonal Contexts
G. Loewenstein (1989)
10.1007/978-0-387-44956-2_11
An Experimental Measurement of Utility
Frederick Mosteller (1951)
10.1016/0022-0531(87)90020-2
Some implications of a more general form of regret theory
G. Loomes (1987)
10.5860/choice.26-6564
Judgment, Decision, and Choice: A Cognitive/Behavioral Synthesis
H. Rachlin (1989)
10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.707
Self-esteem and reactions to failure: The mediating role of overgeneralization.
Michael H. Kernis (1989)
10.1007/978-94-015-7957-5_3
RISK AVERSION IN THE SMALL AND IN THE LARGE
J. Pratt (1992)
Rational choice and the framing
A. Tversky (1986)
10.2307/2286244
Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Trade-Offs
R. Keeney (1979)
10.1016/0092-6566(87)90014-6
Self-esteem and reactions to negative feedback: Toward greater generalizability
J. Brockner (1987)
10.1016/0022-1031(66)90063-1
Threat as a determinant of downward comparison
K. L. Hakmiller (1966)
10.2307/2232669
Regret Theory: An alternative theory of rational choice under uncertainty Review of Economic Studies
G. Loomes (1982)
Choice of comparison persons in evaluating oneself
C. L. Gruder (1977)
Personality, motivation, and achievement
J. Atkinson (1978)
10.1037/0096-1523.12.4.535
Reflection in preferences under risk: Who and when may suggest why
S. Schneider (1986)
10.1287/MNSC.29.10.1156
Risk Premiums for Decision Regret
D. Bell (1983)
10.1037/0022-3514.60.3.414
Self-esteem, similarity, and reactions to active versus passive downward comparison
F. Gibbons (1991)
10.1017/CBO9780511618031.009
The Causes of Preference Reversal
A. Tversky (1990)
10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.136
Norm theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives
D. Kahneman (1986)
10.1086/256692
The Utility Analysis of Choices Involving Risk
M. Friedman (1948)
10.2307/1909829
Exposition of a New Theory on the Measurement of Risk
D. Bernoulli (1954)
10.1287/MNSC.31.1.117
Reply—Putting a Premium on Regret
D. Bell (1985)
10.1287/opre.30.5.961
Regret in Decision Making under Uncertainty
D. Bell (1982)
10.1007/978-94-017-5040-0
Experiments on Decisions under Risk: The Expected Utility Hypothesis
P. Schoemaker (1980)
10.1037/H0023986
Reward and score feedback as determinants of cooperative and competitive game behavior.
C. McClintock (1966)
The Expected Utility Model: Its Variants, Purposes, Evidence and Limitations
P. Schoemaker (1982)
10.1002/BDM.3960040104
Regret and disappointment in taxpayer reporting decisions: An experimental study
D. Kelsey (1991)
10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60416-5
Between Hope and Fear: The Psychology of Risk
L. Lopes (1987)
The risk construct.
J. Yates (1992)
Effects of upward and down
F. X. Gibbons (1989)
10.1007/BF00134355
Regret, recrimination and rationality
R. Sugden (1985)
10.2307/2066199
Social comparison processes: Theoretical and empirical perspectives
J. Suls (1977)
10.1111/J.1468-5914.1987.TB00092.X
Regret: A Theoretical and Conceptual Analysis
J. Landman (1987)
10.1016/0191-8869(88)90099-2
Sensation seeking and stimulus intensity as modulators of cortical, cardiovascular, and electrodermal response: A cross-modality study
M. Zuckerman (1988)
10.1037/0022-3514.37.10.1732
The Effects of Self-Esteem, Success-Failure, and Self-Consciousness on Task Performance
J. Brockner (1979)
10.1038/SCIENTIFICAMERICAN0182-160
The Psychology of Preferences
D. Kahneman (1982)
Protecting the self from regret in decisions under risk.
R. P. Larrick (1991)
10.2307/1884324
Risk, Ambiguity, and the Savage Axioms
D. Ellsberg (1961)
10.4324/9780203767672
Perspectives on cognitive dissonance
R. A. Wicklund (1976)
10.1111/J.1540-5915.1979.TB00043.X
TWO‐PIECE VON NEUMANN‐MORGENSTERN UTILITY FUNCTIONS*
P. Fishburn (1979)
Illusion and well - being : Some social psychological contributions to a theory of mental health
S. E. Taylor (1988)
10.2307/3038234
Testing for Regret and Disappointment in Choice under Uncertainty
G. Loomes (1987)
10.2307/2297651
Disappointment and Dynamic Consistency in Choice under Uncertainty
G. Loomes (1986)
10.1037/H0041006
Postdecision changes in the desirability of alternatives.
J. Brehm (1956)
10.1016/0176-2680(93)90012-J
Journal of Economic Theory: J.-M. Grandmont, 1992, Transformations of the commodity space, behavioural heterogeneity, and the aggregation problem 57, 1-35
G. Myles (1993)
Reactions to feedback about
P. D. Sweeney (1990)
10.2307/3318996
Conflict, Decision, and Dissonance
L. Festinger (1964)
10.4324/9781315888958
Elements of Pure Economics
Léon Walras (1954)
10.1037/0022-3514.62.1.26
Protecting the self from the negative consequences of risky decisions.
R. Josephs (1992)
10.2307/2345300
Decisions with multiple objectives: preferences and value tradeoffs
R. Keeney (1976)
10.1080/05775132.1960.11469071
The Theory of Games
Oskar Morgenstern (1960)
10.2307/1420596
Risk Taking: A Study in Cognition and Personality
N. Kogan (1965)
10.2307/1420234
A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
L. Festinger (1957)
Accountability: The neglected social context of judgment and choice.
P. Tetlock (1985)
10.2307/2280142
Theory of Games and Economic Behavior.
W. E. Deming (1944)
Preference Reversals: A Broader Perspective
P. Slovic (1983)
10.1016/0001-6918(84)90021-0
Empirical and theoretical relationships between value and utility functions
F. H. Barron (1984)
Putting a premium on regret
D. E. Bell (1985)
10.1017/CBO9780511598951.019
Decision Making: MARGINAL VALUE AND INTRINSIC RISK AVERSION
D. Bell (1988)
10.2307/2233499
The Laws of Human Relations and the Rules of Human Action Derived Therefrom
Hermann Heinrich Gossen (1983)
10.2307/2978877
Essays in the theory of risk-bearing
K. Arrow (1958)
10.1007/bf00134055
Endogenous risks and the risk premium
Eric Briys (1985)
10.1177/001872675400700202
A Theory of Social Comparison Processes
L. Festinger (1954)
10.1177/0146167287131011
Social Comparison Choice During Ability Evaluation
R. H. Smith (1987)
10.1037/0033-2909.90.2.245
Downward Comparison Principles in Social Psychology
T. Wills (1981)
Self-esteem and the evaluation of chosen and unchosen alternatives
C. A. Insko (1984)
10.1287/MNSC.28.8.875
RELATIVE RISK AVERSION.
J. Dyer (1982)
10.1037/0033-295X.93.1.33
Cognition and behavior in studies of choice
H. Rachlin (1986)
Individual differences in risk taking.
P. Bromiley (1992)
The effects of self-esteem, success-failure
J. Brockner (1979)
10.4135/9781483346427.n469
Risk-taking behavior
J. Yates (1992)
Accountability: The neglected social context
P. E. Tetlock (1985)
10.2307/2550081
The Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour
J. Neumann (1944)
10.1016/0030-5073(80)90064-1
Self Esteem, Information Search and Problem Solving Efficiency.
H. Weiss (1979)
A history of economic thought (2nd ed.)
J. F. Bell (1967)
10.2307/2221631
Theory of Political Economy
W. S. Jevons (1888)
10.1007/BF00213259
Testing between alternative models of choice under uncertainty: Some initial results
R. Battalio (1990)
10.2307/2227749
A History of Economic Thought
J. F. Bell (1954)
10.1016/0749-5978(87)90043-4
Experimental comparison of individual behavior under risk and under uncertainty for gains and for losses
M. Cohen (1987)
10.4324/9781410617675
Judgment and Decision Making
J. Yates (1990)
Personality and the behavior disorders
J. Hunt (1944)
10.2307/2554246
Further Evidence of the Impact of Regret and Disappointment in Choice under Uncertainty
G. Loomes (1988)
10.1016/0749-5978(89)90019-8
Group vs individual information processing: The effects of outcome feedback on decision making.
R. Tindale (1989)
10.2307/2105550
Pleasure and Pain
C. Ochs (1968)
10.1037/0003-066X.35.7.603
The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.
A. Greenwald (1980)
Sensation Seeking : Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal
M. Zuckerman (1979)
Post-decision changes in desirability of alterna
Brehm (1956)
10.1017/CBO9780511598951
Decision making: Descriptive, normative, and prescriptive interactions.
D. Bell (1988)



This paper is referenced by
10.1017/CBO9780511509599.015
Out of Options: Clinical Implications: Intervention and Resilience Building
K. Sofronoff (2004)
Effects of Gain and Loss Frame on Escalation
E. Juliusson (2003)
10.1006/OBHD.1999.2872
Coping with Unfavorable Attribute Values in Choice.
Luce (2000)
How do consumers make choices? : a summary of evidence from marketing and psychology
Z. Babutsidze (2007)
10.1002/WAT2.1345
Integrating human behavior dynamics into drought risk assessment—A sociohydrologic, agent‐based approach
Marthe Wens (2019)
10.1016/J.JOEP.2011.07.009
Risky discounts: Do people prefer them on a per-item or per-purchase basis and why?
B. Kamleitner (2011)
10.20381/RUOR-6463
Playing Against the Odds: The Role of Mood, Experience and Risk in Decision-making
M. Morgan (2013)
Over or Under? The Motivational Implications of an Underdog Image.
Samir Nurmohamed (2014)
10.1017/CBO9780511509599.013
Out of Options: The Impact of Cognitive Variables as Mediators
K. Sofronoff (2004)
10.1006/OBHD.1999.2847
Overconfidence: It Depends on How, What, and Whom You Ask.
Klayman (1999)
10.1016/J.JBANKFIN.2019.01.009
Valuation Effects of Overconfident CEOs on Corporate Diversification and Refocusing Decisions
P. Andreou (2019)
Pretended Agreement in Decision Making: Exploring the Abilene Paradox inUganda
Vincent Bagire (2010)
10.5465/AMR.34.4.ZOK600
The Hot and Cool of Death Awareness at Work: Mortality Cues, Aging, and Self-Protective and Prosocial Motivations
A. Grant (2009)
10.1080/1351847042000255643
Overconfidence in investment decisions: An experimental approach
Dennis A. V. Dittrich (2001)
10.1016/J.OBHDP.2005.04.004
Wearing out your shoes to prevent someone else from stepping into them: Anticipated regret and social takeover in sequential decisions
Erik Hoelzl (2005)
10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00205-X
Self-report measures of patient utility: should we trust them?
M. Hanita (2000)
10.1016/J.IJINTREL.2005.01.010
The negative effects of being a ‘late’ newcomer during an expatriation assignment
Michael Harvey (2004)
10.1177/0146167297233003
The Role of Motivated Reasoning in Optimistic Time Predictions
R. Buehler (1997)
When "hope springs eternal": The role of chance in risk taking
Natalia Karelaia (2008)
10.1002/ACP.1197
Mock-suspects' Decisions to Confess: The Accuracy of Eyewitness Evidence is Critical
M. Kebbell (2006)
10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0234444
The future of feedback: Motivating performance improvement through future-focused feedback
Jackie Gnepp (2020)
UvA-DARE ( Digital Academic Repository ) Consequences of regret aversion : effect of expected feedback on risky decision making
Zeelenberg (2005)
10.1006/cogp.1998.0708
Goals as Reference Points
C. Heath (1999)
10.20409/BERJ.2019.184
The Effect of Message Valence on E-WoM Spread: A Moderated Mediation Analysis
Edin Guclu Sozer (2019)
10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.255
Accounting for the effects of accountability.
J. Lerner (1999)
10.1037/H0100090
The impact of imposed patterning, intrinsic motivation, and cognition on random and simple outcomes in choice behavior.
Elizabeth Kudadjie-Gyamfi (2006)
10.1002/BDM.582
Probing the link between narcissism and gambling: the mediating role of judgment and decision‐making biases
C. Lakey (2008)
In Defense of the Rationality Assumption
P. Bias (2012)
10.1002/BDM.630
Better Safe than Sorry: Precautionary Reasoning and Implied Dominance in Risky Decisions
M. Dekay (2009)
10.1016/J.EVOLHUMBEHAV.2014.11.005
The joint emergence of group competition and within-group cooperation
M. Puurtinen (2015)
10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02118.x
Misery Is Not Miserly
Cynthia Cryder (2008)
10.1016/S1090-5138(98)00030-0
A preliminary cross-cultural study of moral intuitions.
P. O'neill (1998)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar