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Calcium Fluxes, Calcium Antagonists, And Calcium-Related Pathology In Brain Ischemia, Hypoglycemia, And Spreading Depression: A Unifying Hypothesis

B. Siesjö, F. Bengtsson
Published 1989 · Biology, Medicine

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It has been commonly assumed that calcium, which normally serves important functions as a membrane stabilizer, metabolic regulator, and sec­ ond messenger, also can mediate anoxic and toxic cell death (Schanne et aI., 1979; Farber, 1981; Trump et aI., 1981). It is then postulated that when the plasma membrane becomes unduly permeable to calcium, the free cytosolic concentration (Ca2+) rises to toxic levels. As applied to the brain, this hypothesis predicts that loss of cellular calcium ho­ meostasis underlies selective neuronal vulnerability in ischemia, hypoglycemia, and epileptic seizures (Siesj6, 1981; Meldrum, 1983; Raichle, 1983; for further literature, see Siesj6 and Wieloch, 1985; Siesj6, 1988). It should be clearly understood that ischemia, particularly if dense, causes all cells to loose their calcium homeostasis. The hypothesis predicts, therefore, that some cells are more vulner­ able than others because they have a higher density of calcium channels in their plasma membranes. Presumably, this could lead to untolerable local in­ creases in calcium concentration. In a recent extension of the calcium hypothesis, it was speculated that increased calcium cycling across ischemia-damaged membranes leads to a sustained rise in Ca2 + j and slow calcium overload of mitochondria, thereby causing delayed neuronal death (Deshpande et aI., 1987; see also Martins et aI., 1988). Dux et aI. (1987), inducing transient isch­ emia in the gerbil, recently assessed the time course of mitochondrial calcium deposits in glia cells and in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus CAl sector and
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