← Back to Search
Diclofenac Residues As The Cause Of Vulture Population Decline In Pakistan
J. Oaks, M. Gilbert, M. Virani, R. Watson, C. Meteyer, B. Rideout, H. Shivaprasad, Shakeel Ahmed, M. I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, Ahmad Ali, A. Khan
Published 2004 · Biology, Medicine
Save to my Library
Download via 🐼 PaperPanda Download via oaDOI Download via OAB Download via LibKey Download via Google Google ScholarAnalyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
The Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV; Gyps bengalensis) was once one of the most common raptors in the Indian subcontinent. A population decline of >95%, starting in the 1990s, was first noted at Keoladeo National Park, India. Since then, catastrophic declines, also involving Gyps indicus and Gyps tenuirostris, have continued to be reported across the subcontinent. Consequently these vultures are now listed as critically endangered by BirdLife International. In 2000, the Peregrine Fund initiated its Asian Vulture Crisis Project with the Ornithological Society of Pakistan, establishing study sites at 16 OWBV colonies in the Kasur, Khanewal and Muzaffargarh–Layyah Districts of Pakistan to measure mortality at over 2,400 active nest sites. Between 2000 and 2003, high annual adult and subadult mortality (5–86%) and resulting population declines (34–95%) (ref. 5 and M.G., manuscript in preparation) were associated with renal failure and visceral gout. Here, we provide results that directly correlate residues of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with renal failure. Diclofenac residues and renal disease were reproduced experimentally in OWBVs by direct oral exposure and through feeding vultures diclofenac-treated livestock. We propose that residues of veterinary diclofenac are responsible for the OWBV decline.
This paper references
A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity.
G. Ellman (1961)
Avifauna of Asia. (Book Reviews: A Synopsis of the Birds of India and Pakistan, Together with Those of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Ceylon)
S. D. Ripley (1963)
Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan Together With Those of Nepal, Bhutan, and Ceylon I. Divers to Hawks
S Ali (1968)
Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan Together With Those of Nepal, Bhutan, and Ceylon I. Divers to Hawks (Oxford
S. Ali (1968)
Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan Together with Those of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Ceylon. Volume 1, Divers to Hawks Salim Ali S. Dillon Ripley
J. Marshall (1970)
Anticholinesterase poisoning of birds: Field monitoring and diagnosis of acute poisoning
E. F. Hill (1982)
[Increase in blood uric acid induced by indomethacin in hens or chickens].
Y. Nys (1983)
Increase in uricemia induced by indomethacin in hens or chickens
Y Nys (1983)
Organophosphate insecticide (famphur) topically applied to cattle kills magpies and hawks
C. Henny (1985)
Pentoxifylline. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy.
A. Ward (1987)
Renal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
C. Pirani (1987)
Use of muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts for the isolation of viruses from wild birds
D. Docherty (1988)
Diclofenac sodium. A reappraisal of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy.
P. Todd (1988)
Differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus serotypes using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
H. M. Kwon (1993)
Comparative Pathology of a Chicken-origin and Two Duck-origin Influenza Virus Isolates in Chickens: The Effect of Route of Inoculation
D. Swayne (1994)
Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations
K. Patnode (1997)
Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife
W. Beyer (1996)
Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations
A. Fairbrother (1997)
Ecotoxicology and residues of anthelmintic compounds.
Q. Mckellar (1997)
Status of Vultures in Keoladeo National Parkc Bharatpurc Rajasthanc with Special Reference To Population Crash in Gyps Species
V. Prakash (1999)
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?
C. Daughton (1999)
Detection and Differentiation of Mycobacterium Avium and Mycobacterium Genavense by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Enzyme Digestion Analysis
M. Mendenhall (2000)
Pathology of Fatal West Nile Virus Infections in Native and Exotic Birds during the 1999 Outbreak in New York City, New York
K. Steele (2000)
Detection of North American West Nile virus in animal tissue by a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction assay.
D. J. Johnson (2001)
Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. Collar, N.J., (Editor-in-chief), Andreev, A.V., Chan, S., Crosby, M.J., Subramanya, S. and Tobias, J.A. Maps by Rudyanto and M. J. Crosby. BirdLife International, Cambridge. 3,038 pages, in two volumes, £55.00.
N. Collar (2001)
Threatened Birds of Asia : The BirdLife International Red Data Book
C. Inskipp (2001)
Identification and subtyping of avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription-PCR.
M. Lee (2001)
Threatened birds of Asia
N. Collar (2001)
BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International
Vulture mortality: Pathological and microbiological investigations
S. Mishra (2002)
Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis in Pennsylvania Chickens 1997–2000
A. Ziegler (2002)
Breeding and mortality of Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan
M. Gilbert (2002)
Haematology and Blood Biochemistry in Free-Living African White-Backed Vultures Gyps africanus in Kenya (MSc
C. W. Gatome (2002)
Haematology and Blood Biochemistry in Free-Living African White-Backed Vultures Gyps africanus in Kenya
C W Gatome (2002)
Occurrence and fate of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in surface waters.
C. Tixier (2003)
Diseases of poultry.
D. Swayne (2003)
Causes and Effects of Temporospatial Declines of Gyps Vultures in Asia
D. Pain (2003)
Indian vultures: victims of an infectious disease epidemic?
A. Cunningham (2003)
Comparative pharmacokinetics of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in five bird species.
K. Baert (2003)
Diseases of Poultry 11th edn (ed. Saif
R. Crespo (2003)
Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on www.nature.com/nature
letters to nature NATURE | doi:10.1038/nature02317 | www.nature.com/nature
Competing interests statement The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests
coordinated the overall diagnostic work and performed microbiology coordinated field biology and collected samples
Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.L.L. (email:
This paper is referenced by
Pharmaceuticals in Environment
Alka Bali (2022)
Nanobiodegradation of pharmaceutical pollutants
Role of microalgae in degradation of pharmaceutical compounds from water
Jyoti Sharma (2022)
Human-Environment Interactions: An Introduction
M. Welford (2021)
Residues of selected sulfonamides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics-antipyretics in surface water of the Elbe river basin (Czech Republic)
M. Skocovska (2021)
Different degradation mechanisms of carbamazepine and diclofenac by single-atom Barium embedded g-C3N4: the role of photosensitation-like mechanism.
Jialiang Liang (2021)
Mitigation and management plans should consider all anthropogenic disturbances to fauna
S. L. Cross (2021)
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide kills Gyps vultures at concentrations found in the muscle of treated cattle
T. Galligan (2021)
Emerging micropollutants in municipal wastewater: occurrence and treatment options
Roberta Hofman (2021)
Removal of pharmaceuticals by ammonia oxidizers during nitrification.
Gang Wu (2021)
Diclofenac sodium removal from aqueous phase using a keratinolytic waste and biodegradation of the adsorbate/adsorbent complex
F. M. Rodríguez-Zamarripa (2021)
Response of Two Crop Plants, Zea mays L. and Solanum lycopersicum L., to Diclofenac and Naproxen
A. Siemieniuk (2021)
A Review on the Application of Zeolites and Mesoporous Silica Materials in the Removal of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Antibiotics from Water
Agnieszka Grela (2021)
Specific glutathione-S-transferases ensure an efficient detoxification of diclofenac in Solanum lycopersicum L. plants.
Bruno Sousa (2021)
Advances in the Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs): Polluted Water and Soil
Mahendar Porika (2021)
Development of emission factors to estimate discharge of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products from wastewater treatment plants.
Wenxing Zhao (2021)
Beyond the patient: Advanced techniques to help predict the fate and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment
S. Owen (2021)
Environmental fate and effects assessment of human pharmaceuticals: lessons learnt from regulatory data
Simon Schwarz (2021)
Impact of Diclofenac a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Veterinary Pharmaceutical Drug on Vultures
R. Yasmeen (2021)
Pharmaceutical pollution and sustainable development goals: Going the right way?
H. Souza (2021)
Lack of standardization in the use of road counts for surveying raptors
Christopher J. W. McClure (2021)
Removal of sodium diclofenac from aqueous solutions by rice hull biochar
Judilyn Q. Filipinas (2021)
MOF-808 and its hollow fibre adsorbents for efficient diclofenac removal
N. Prasetya (2021)
Modelling Habitat Suitability for the Breeding Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Nabaz R. Khwarahm (2021)
Identification and Quantification of Transformation Products Formed during the Ozonation of the Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Pharmaceuticals Ibuprofen and Diclofenac
Matilda Kråkström (2021)
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) and their Effect on Old World Vultures: A Scoping Review
Omar Jiménez-López (2021)
Exposure via biotransformation: Oxazepam reaches predicted pharmacological effect levels in European perch after exposure to temazepam.
D. Červený (2021)
Dietary flexibility of Wood Storks in response to human-induced rapid environmental change
Betsy A. Evans (2021)
Models of poisoning effects on vulture populations show that small but frequent episodes have a larger effect than large but rare ones
R. Tsiakiris (2021)
Optimizing Micropollutant Removal by Ozonation; Interference of Effluent Organic Matter Fractions
K. van Gijn (2021)
Anthropogenic Drivers Leading to Population Decline and Genetic Preservation of the Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus)
M. Pirastru (2021)
The use of Bacillus subtilis bacteria as a tool to assess the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in the environment
W. Joshua (2021)See more