Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Graphene-based Composite Materials

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, G. Dommett, K. Kohlhaas, Eric J. Zimney, E. Stach, R. Piner, S. Nguyen, R. Ruoff
Published 2006 · Materials Science, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Graphene sheets—one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon—are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (∼3,000 W m-1 K-1 and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene–graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold of ∼0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of ∼0.1 S m-1, sufficient for many electrical applications. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications.
This paper references
10.1016/J.CARBON.2006.06.004
Synthesis and exfoliation of isocyanate-treated graphene oxide nanoplatelets
S. Stankovich (2006)
Method of Manufacturing of Graphite Oxide (GO)
G I Titelman (2005)
10.1016/S0008-6223(99)00037-8
Synthesis of polyaniline-intercalated graphite oxide by anin situ oxidative polymerization reaction
P. Liu (1999)
Electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube reinforced polyimide composites
Z. Ounaiesa (2003)
two-dimensional electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics
Berger (2004)
10.1038/nature04233
Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene
K. Novoselov (2005)
10.1021/JP040650F
Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics.
C. Berger (2004)
10.1016/S0009-2614(98)00144-4
A new structural model for graphite oxide
H. He (1998)
10.1002/ADMA.19960080806
Ultrathin graphite oxide–polyelectrolyte composites prepared by self‐assembly: Transition between conductive and non‐conductive states
N. Kotov (1996)
10.1016/0379-6779(82)90047-9
Intercalation compounds of graphite
I. Palchan (1982)
10.1016/J.SYNTHMET.2003.10.023
Novel synthesis of conductive poly(arylene disulfide)/graphite nanocomposite
X. Du (2003)
10.1021/CM981085U
Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Ultrathin Composite Films from Micron-Sized Graphite Oxide Sheets and Polycations
N. Kovtyukhova (1999)
10.1103/PHYSREVE.52.819
Geometrical percolation threshold of overlapping ellipsoids.
Garboczi (1995)
Method of Manufacturing of Graphite Oxide (GO) P1391–-P1392 (Research Disclosure
G. I. Titelman (2005)
LETTERS NATURE|Vol 442|20 July
(2006)
10.1016/S0008-6223(04)00444-0
Thin-film particles of graphite oxide 1:: High-yield synthesis and flexibility of the particles
M. Hirata (2004)
10.1063/1.1616976
Homogeneous carbon nanotube/polymer composites for electrical applications
R. Ramasubramaniam (2003)
10.1039/B501805F
Strategies for dispersing carbon nanotubes in highly viscous polymers
N. Grossiord (2005)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2004.08.025
Composite graphitic nanolayers prepared by self-assembly between finely dispersed graphite oxide and a cationic polymer
T. Szabó (2005)
10.1002/POLB.20597
AC and DC percolative conductivity of single wall carbon nanotube polymer composites
D. Mclachlan (2005)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2004.10.009
Thin-film particles of graphite oxide. 2: Preliminary studies for internal micro fabrication of single particle and carbonaceous electronic circuits
M. Hirata (2005)
10.1021/JP9731821
Structure of Graphite Oxide Revisited
A. Lerf (1998)
10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.176803
Electric field modulation of galvanomagnetic properties of mesoscopic graphite.
Y. Zhang (2005)
10.1038/nature04235
Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene
Y. Zhang (2005)
10.1039/B512799H
Stable aqueous dispersions of graphitic nanoplatelets via the reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)
S. Stankovich (2006)
10.1016/S1369-7021(04)00506-1
Framework for nanocomposites
R. Vaia (2004)
10.1021/LA000442O
Preparation and Characterization of Ultrathin Films Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled from Graphite Oxide Nanoplatelets and Polymers
T. Cassagneau (2000)
10.1088/0143-0807/15/3/001
An introduction to percolation
M. Basta (1994)
10.1023/B:JMSC.0000021439.18202.EA
Electrical applications of carbon materials
D. Chung (2004)
Supplementary Information is linked to the online version of the paper at www.nature.com/nature
10.1016/J.EURPOLYMJ.2003.08.005
PMMA/graphite nanosheets composite and its conducting properties
G. Chen (2003)
10.4324/9780203211595
Introduction to percolation theory
D. Stauffer (1985)
10.1126/SCIENCE.287.5453.637
Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load
Yu (2000)
Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: two-dimensional electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics
C Berger (2004)
USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries. khttp://minerals.usgs.gov/ minerals/pubs/commodity/graphite/graphmcs06
D W Olson (2006)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1102896
Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films
K. Novoselov (2004)



This paper is referenced by
10.1021/nn200493r
Nanostructured reduced graphene oxide/Fe2O3 composite as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries.
Xianjun Zhu (2011)
10.5772/50408
Polymer-Graphene Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications
K. Singh (2012)
10.1016/J.COCIS.2015.11.004
A manufacturing perspective on graphene dispersions
D. Johnson (2015)
10.1088/1361-6528/aadd6d
Periodic ripples on thermally-annealed graphene on Cu (110)-reconstruction or moiré pattern?
C. Durkan (2018)
10.3390/nano9091330
Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Sensors for Food Safety
Mingfei Pan (2019)
10.4236/ACES.2012.24055
Sensitive Voltammetric Determination of Mitoxantrone by Using CS-Dispersed Graphene Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes
B. Hong (2012)
10.1021/nn901934u
Hydrogen bond networks in graphene oxide composite paper: structure and mechanical properties.
N. Medhekar (2010)
10.1002/cssc.201900953
One-Pot Synthesis of Sulfur and Nitrogen Co-Functionalized Graphene Material using Deep Eutectic Solvents for Supercapacitors.
P. H. Wadekar (2019)
Chemical Interactions of Air Pollutants: Air Pollutant Control and Sensing Applications
Tingting Gao (2012)
10.1039/c2cp40225d
The electrochemistry of CVD graphene: progress and prospects.
D. Brownson (2012)
10.1016/J.CMA.2013.10.002
Prediction of nonlinear vibration of bilayer graphene sheets in thermal environments via molecular dynamics simulations and nonlocal elasticity
H. Shen (2013)
10.1039/C2GC16681J
Graphite oxide as an efficient and durable metal-free catalyst for aerobic oxidative coupling of amines to imines
Hai Huang (2012)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2011.09.042
Flexible conductive graphene paper obtained by direct and gentle annealing of graphene oxide paper
C. Vallés (2012)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2013.06.036
Controllable pore size of three dimensional self-assembled foam-like graphene and its wettability
H. Ahn (2013)
10.1016/J.MATCHEMPHYS.2012.01.039
Reduced graphene oxide–nickel oxide composites with high electrochemical capacitive performance
Yuying Yang (2012)
10.1016/J.TSF.2012.02.069
Voltammetric detection of bisphenol a by a chitosan–graphene composite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode
Qingxiang Wang (2012)
10.1016/J.ELECTACTA.2013.08.145
Synthesis and electrochemical performance of well-defined flake-shaped sulfonated graphene/polypyrrole composites via facile in situ doping polymerization
X. Wang (2013)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2011.09.044
Effects of defects and non-coordinating molecular overlayers on the work function of graphene and energy-level alignment with organic molecules
Giyeol Bae (2012)
10.1016/S1369-7021(12)70047-0
Directed nanoparticle reduction on graphene
R. Pasricha (2012)
10.1007/s12221-013-1317-7
Enhanced thermal conductivity for PVDF composites with a hybrid functionalized graphene sheet-nanodiamond filler
J. Yu (2013)
10.1021/am402124r
Graphene/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposites as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries.
Guofeng Xia (2013)
10.1002/PPSC.201300043
One-Step In Situ Synthesis of GeO2/Graphene Composites Anode for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries
W. Wei (2013)
10.1115/1.4024814
Experimental Investigation of the Machinability of Epoxy Reinforced With Graphene Platelets
Ishank Arora (2013)
10.1016/J.MATCHEMPHYS.2011.10.052
Effect of processing technique on the transport and mechanical properties of graphite nanoplatelet/rubbery epoxy composites for thermal interface applications
M. Raza (2012)
10.1016/J.TSF.2011.04.208
Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices
E. Kymakis (2011)
10.1016/J.JTICE.2011.06.012
Dispersion of graphene in aqueous solutions with different types of surfactants and the production of graphene films by spray or drop coating
Nen-Wen Pu (2012)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2011.09.008
Polymer-stabilized graphene dispersions at high concentrations in organic solvents for nanocomposite production
Ahmed S. Wajid (2011)
10.1021/nl204196v
Shear modulus of monolayer graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition.
X. Liu (2012)
10.1088/2043-6262/4/3/035012
Synthesis of multi-layer graphene films on copper tape by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method
V. T. Nguyễn (2013)
10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2011.06.002
Nanosized Li4Ti5O12/graphene hybrid materials with low polarization for high rate lithium ion batteries
Y. Shi (2011)
10.1016/J.CARBON.2011.04.052
High-concentration organic solutions of poly(styrene-co-butadiene-co-styrene)-modified graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite
Y. Liu (2011)
10.1007/s11051-013-1674-6
TiO2 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries
D. Li (2013)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar