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The Draft Genome Of Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis)

Qiang Xu, Lingling Chen, Xiaoan Ruan, Dijun Chen, Andan Zhu, Chunli Chen, D. Bertrand, Wen-Biao Jiao, Baohai Hao, Matthew P Lyon, Jiongjiong Chen, Song Gao, Feng Xing, H. Lan, Jiwei Chang, X. Ge, Yang Lei, Qun Hu, Y. Miao, Lun Wang, Shixin Xiao, M. Biswas, Wenfang Zeng, Fei Guo, Hongbo Cao, Xiaoming Yang, Xi-wen Xu, Y. Cheng, Juan Xu, Ji-Hong Liu, Oscar Luo, Zhonghui Tang, Wen-wu Guo, H. Kuang, Hong-yu Zhang, M. Roose, N. Nagarajan, X. Deng, Y. Ruan
Published 2013 · Biology, Medicine

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Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.
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