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Cellular Mechanisms And Physiological Consequences Of Redox-dependent Signalling

K. Holmström, T. Finkel
Published 2014 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were originally characterized in terms of their harmful effects on cells and invading microorganisms, are increasingly implicated in various cell fate decisions and signal transduction pathways. The mechanism involved in ROS-dependent signalling involves the reversible oxidation and reduction of specific amino acids, with crucial reactive Cys residues being the most frequent target. In this Review, we discuss the sources of ROS within cells and what is known regarding how intracellular oxidant levels are regulated. We further discuss the recent observations that reduction–oxidation (redox)-dependent regulation has a crucial role in an ever-widening range of biological activities — from immune function to stem cell self-renewal, and from tumorigenesis to ageing.
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