The Redox Language In Neurodegenerative Diseases: Oxidative Post-translational Modifications By Hydrogen Peroxide
Neurodegenerative diseases, a subset of age-driven diseases, have been known to exhibit increased oxidative stress. The resultant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been viewed as a detrimental byproduct of many cellular processes. Despite this, therapeutic approaches using antioxidants were deemed unsuccessful in circumventing neurodegenerative diseases. In recent times, it is widely accepted that these toxic by-products could act as secondary messengers, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to drive important signaling pathways. Notably, mitochondria are considered one of the major producers of ROS, especially in the production of mitochondrial H2O2. As a secondary messenger, cellular H2O2 can initiate redox signaling through oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTMs) on the thiol group of the amino acid cysteine. With the current consensus that cellular ROS could drive important biological signaling pathways through redox signaling, researchers have started to investigate the role of cellular ROS in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases, and recent studies have started to focus on the implications of mitochondrial ROS from dysfunctional mitochondria on the dysregulation of redox signaling. Henceforth, in this review, we will focus our attention on the redox signaling of mitochondrial ROS, particularly on mitochondrial H2O2, and its potential implications with neurodegenerative diseases.