Three-dimensional Cellular Automaton Simulation Of Coupled Hydrogen Porosity And Microstructure During Solidification Of Ternary Aluminum Alloys
Hydrogen-induced porosity formed during solidification of aluminum-based alloys has been a major issue adversely affecting the performance of solidification products such as castings, welds or additively manufactured components. A three-dimensional cellular automaton model was developed, for the first time, to predict the formation and evolution of hydrogen porosity coupled with grain growth during solidification of a ternary Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg alloy. The simulation results fully describe the concurrent nucleation and evolution of both alloy grains and hydrogen porosity, yielding the morphology of multiple grains as well as the porosity size and distribution. This model, successfully validated by X-ray micro-tomographic measurements and optical microscopy of a wedge die casting, provides a critical tool for minimizing/controlling porosity formation in solidification products.