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Controlled Biosynthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles With Coffea Arabica Using Factorial Design

Wanderson Juvencio Keijok, Rayssa Helena Arruda Pereira, Luis Alberto Contreras Alvarez, Adilson Ribeiro Prado, André Romero da Silva, Josimar Ribeiro, Jairo Pinto de Oliveira, Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimarães

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Abstract Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has become incredibly popular, mainly by minimizing problems of environmental contamination and by being able to reduce, stabilize and potentially functionalize nanomaterials. Such compounds have possible applications in various areas, e.g., pharmaceuticals (drug delivery systems, cosmetics), textile industry (clothing with antimicrobial properties), diagnostic medicine (imaging, high efficiency biosensors), energy (solar panels), bioremediation, among others. However, the lack of reproducibility and information on the control mechanisms during synthesis have made the application of green-synthesized nanoparticles unfeasible. Thus, this study proposed the investigation of the main mechanisms affecting synthesis control, using factorial design for the preparation of gold nanoparticles with extract of Coffea arabica. We obtained stable (Zeta Potential, UV-vis and DLS), monodisperse, and quasi-spherical (TEM) nanoparticles, which presented adsorbed aromatic molecules (FTIR and RAMAN) and defined crystal structure (XRD), proving that the plant extract acted as a reducing agent, as well as a stabilizer and functionalizer for the synthesized nanostructures. The factorial design employed here to obtain gold nanoparticles with Coffea arabica extract allowed for a controlled and reproducible synthesis, enabling new possibilities for the application in several fields.