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Nanocellulose-based Polymer Hybrids And Their Emerging Applications In Biomedical Engineering And Water Purification

Dinesh K. Patel, S. Dutta, K. Lim
Published 2019 · Materials Science

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Nanocellulose, derived from cellulose hydrolysis, has unique optical and mechanical properties, high surface area, and good biocompatibility. It is frequently used as a reinforcing agent to improve the native properties of materials. The presence of functional groups in its surface enables the alteration of its behavior and its use under different conditions. Nanocellulose is typically used in the form of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), or bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). CNCs and CNFs have a high aspect ratio with typical lengths of ∼100–250 nm and 0.1–2 μm, respectively; BNC is nanostructured cellulose produced by bacteria. Nanohybrid materials are a combination of organic or inorganic nanomaterials with macromolecules forming a single composite and typically exhibit superior optical, thermal, and mechanical properties to those of native polymers, owing to the greater interactions between the macromolecule matrix and the nanomaterials. Excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability make nanocellulose an ideal material for applications in biomedicine. Unlike native polymers, nanocellulose-based nanohybrids exhibit a sustained drug release ability, which can be further optimized by changing the content or chemical environment of the nanocellulose, as well as the external stimuli, such as the pH and electric fields. In this review, we describe the process of extraction of nanocellulose from different natural sources; its effects on the structural, morphological, and mechanical properties of polymers; and its various applications.
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