Synergistic Activation Of Phospholipase D By Protein Kinase C- And G-protein-mediated Pathways In Streptolysin O-permeabilized HL60 Cells
Stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD) by cell surface receptors has been observed in many cell types. We have investigated the mechanism of activation of this enzyme in undifferentiated HL60 cells. GTP analogues and Ca2+ (buffered in the nanomolar to micromolar range) were introduced into HL60 cells in the presence of the permeabilizing agent, streptolysin O. We report that guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) is a potent activator of phospholipase D when Ca2+ is available at micromolar levels. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or Ca2+ alone can also stimulate PLD, but to a limited extent. The activation of PLD by GTP[S] can be partially dissociated from GTP[S]-stimulated phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, suggesting that a G-protein may be directly involved in regulating PLD. However, maximal activation of PLD only occurs under conditions that are permissive to phospholipase C stimulation. We conclude that PLD activation is under dual control, i.e. protein kinase C- as well as G-protein-mediated regulation. Synergistic activation occurs when both pathways are simultaneously stimulated. We conclude that full activation of PLD requires protein kinase C, increased Ca2+ and a GTP-binding protein. Evidence for cytosolic components that may also be involved in obtaining full activation of PLD is also presented.