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Isothiocyanates As Substrates For Human Glutathione Transferases: Structure-activity Studies

R H Kolm, U H Danielson, Y Zhang, P Talalay, B Mannervik

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The catalytic properties of four human glutathione transferases (GSTs), A1-1, M1-1, M4-4 and P1-1, were examined with 14 isothiocyanate (R-NCS) substrates. The compounds include aliphatic and aromatic homologues, some of which are natural constituents of human food, namely sulphoraphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulphinyl)butane], erucin [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylthio)butane], erysolin [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulphonyl)butane], benzyl-NCS, phenethyl-NCS and allyl-NCS. All isothiocyanates investigated were substrates for the four GSTs. The enzymes promote addition of the thiol group of GSH to the electrophilic central carbon of the isothiocyanate group to form dithiocarbamates [R-NH-C(=S)-SG] which have high UV absorption at 274 nm. Molar absorption coefficients and non-enzymic rate constants as well as standardized enzyme assay conditions for all compounds were established. Of the four isoenzymes investigated, GSTs M1-1 and P1-1 were generally the most efficient catalysts, whereas GST M4-4 was the least efficient. Isothiocyanates are among the GST substrates that are most rapidly conjugated. On the basis of rate-enhancement data and binding energies, the isothiocyanates were compared with 4-hydroxyalkenals, another class of natural GST substrates previously subjected to systematic kinetic analysis. The incremental transition-state stabilization attributable to an increased number of methylene groups in homologous alkyl isothiocyanates is similar to that previously noted for homologous 4-hydroxyalkenals.