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Plant Drought Stress: Effects, Mechanisms And Management

M. Farooq, A. Wahid, N. Kobayashi, D. Fujita, S. Basra
Published 2011 · Biology

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Scarcity of water is a severe environmental constraint to plant productivity. Drought-induced loss in crop yield probably exceeds losses from all other causes, since both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Here, we have reviewed the effects of drought stress on the growth, phenology, water and nutrient relations, photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and respiration in plants. This article also describes the mechanism of drought resistance in plants on a morphological, physiological and molecular basis. Various management strategies have been proposed to cope with drought stress. Drought stress reduces leaf size, stem extension and root proliferation, disturbs plant water relations and reduces water-use efficiency. Plants display a variety of physiological and biochemical responses at cellular and whole-organism levels towards prevailing drought stress, thus making it a complex phenomenon. CO2 assimilation by leaves is reduced mainly by stomatal closure, membrane damage and disturbed activity of various enzymes, especially those of CO2 fixation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Enhanced metabolite flux through the photorespiratory pathway increases the oxidative load on the tissues as both processes generate reactive oxygen species. Injury caused by reactive oxygen species to biological macromolecules under drought stress is among the major deterrents to growth. Plants display a range of mechanisms to withstand drought stress. The major mechanisms include curtailed water loss by increased diffusive resistance, enhanced water uptake with prolific and deep root systems and its efficient use, and smaller and succulent leaves to reduce the transpirational loss. Among the nutrients, potassium ions help in osmotic adjustment; silicon increases root endodermal silicification and improves the cell water balance. Low-molecular-weight osmolytes, including glycinebetaine, proline and other amino acids, organic acids, and polyols, are crucial to sustain cellular functions under drought. Plant growth substances such as salicylic acid, auxins, gibberrellins, cytokinin and abscisic acid modulate the plant responses towards drought. Polyamines, citrulline and several enzymes act as antioxidants and reduce the adverse effects of water deficit. At molecular levels several drought-responsive genes and transcription factors have been identified, such as the dehydration-responsive element-binding gene, aquaporin, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and dehydrins. Plant drought tolerance can be managed by adopting strategies such as mass screening and breeding, marker-assisted selection and exogenous application of hormones and osmoprotectants to seed or growing plants, as well as engineering for drought resistance.
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Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress, and future perspectives
J. Fountain (2015)
10.1071/FP16263
Assessing the suitability of various screening methods as a proxy for drought tolerance in barley.
M. Hasanuzzaman (2017)
10.1002/ece3.3630
Drought effect on plant biomass allocation: A meta‐analysis
A. Eziz (2017)
A genetic analysis of the introgression process from cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to wild prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.)
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Soil Class, Mechanical Impedance and Irrigation: Impact on Physiological Performance in Green Dwarf Coconut
Anderson Lopes Peçanha (2019)
Physiological and Bioagronomical Aspects Involved in Growth and Yield Components of Cultivated Forage Species in Mediterranean Environments: A Review
P. Martiniello (2011)
Soil Moisture, available water and Physical Properties of soils of Some Selected Pedons at Undulated Hilly Terrain of Dangs District, South Gujarat
Ruplal Prasad (2018)
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Ahmet Korkmaz (2015)
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M. Nikravesh (2018)
10.3389/fpls.2018.01077
Fatty Acid Profile Changes During Gradual Soil Water Depletion in Oats Suggests a Role for Jasmonates in Coping With Drought
J. Sánchez-Martín (2018)
10.1071/FP15135
Response of leaf water status, stomatal characteristics, photosynthesis and yield in black gram and green gram genotypes to soil water deficit.
B. Baroowa (2015)
10.3832/IFOR1823-009
Oak sprouts grow better than seedlings under drought stress
J. Pietras (2016)
10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.07.021
Enhanced drought tolerance in seedlings of Neotropical tree species inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria.
Angélica Nunes Tiepo (2018)
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Genetic interaction and inheritance of biochemical traits can predict tolerance of hybrid maize cv. SC704 to drought
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EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESS AND FIELD TREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH TRAITS OF PARENTAL BERSEEM CLOVER
Farnaz Daneshnia (2018)
Characterization of Transgenic Tomato Plants Expressing the C-domain of Calreticulin from Zea mays.
Laleh Bagherzadi (2011)
10.1007/s12374-019-0257-1
Response of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism and Secondary Metabolites to Drought Stress and Salt Stress in Plants
Gaochang Cui (2019)
10.21467/jmm.6.1.40-51
Multiple Beneficial Effects of Using Biochar (as a Great Organic Material) on Tolerance and Productivity of Rice under Abiotic Stress
Gulaqa Anwari (2019)
10.1007/s12517-018-3917-4
Predicting moisture content of soil from thermal properties using artificial neural network
Oluseun Adetola Sanuade (2018)
10.1556/019.70.2019.09
Polyamines protect mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] plants against drought stress
Omid Sadeghipour (2019)
Allelic Variations and Agronomic Comparisons of Durum Wheat Cultivars under East-Mediterranean Conditions
Hüseyin Güngör (2018)
Comparison of Gas Exchange in Moringa oleifera and other Drought Tolerant Tree Species for Climate Change Mitigation under Semi-arid Condition of Northern South Africa
Paulina Moshibudi Mabapa (2018)
10.1007/s12355-016-0464-8
ATP-Citrate Lyase Gene (SoACLA-1), a Novel ACLA Gene in Sugarcane, and Its Overexpression Enhance Drought Tolerance of Transgenic Tobacco
Thi-Thu Phan (2016)
10.3389/fpls.2018.00603
Phenotyping of Arabidopsis Drought Stress Response Using Kinetic Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Multicolor Fluorescence Imaging
Jieni Yao (2018)
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