Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
Phytochemicals As Protectors Against Ultraviolet Radiation: Versatility Of Effects And Mechanisms.
Published 2008 · Chemistry, Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most abundant carcinogens in our environment, and the development of non-melanoma skin cancers, the most common type of human malignancy worldwide, represents one of the major consequences of excessive exposure. Because of growing concerns that the level of UV radiation is increasing as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone and climate change, the development of strategies for protection of the skin is an urgent need. Many phytochemicals that belong to various families of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids (caffeine, sanguinarine), flavonoids [(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate, genistein, silibinin], carotenoids ( beta-carotene, lycopene), and isothiocyanates (sulforaphane), offer exciting platforms for the development of such protective strategies. These phytochemicals have been consumed by humans for many centuries as part of plant-rich diets and are presumed to be of low toxicity, an essential requirement for a chemoprotective agent. Mechanistically, they affect multiple signalling pathways and protect against UV radiation-inflicted damage by their ability to act as direct and indirect antioxidants, as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents. Such "pluripotent character" is a critical prerequisite for an agent that is designed to counteract the multiple damaging effects of UV radiation. Especially attractive are inducers of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which controls the gene expression of proteins whose activation leads to enhanced protection against oxidants and electrophiles. Such protection is comprehensive, long-lasting, and unlikely to cause pro-oxidant effects or interfere with the synthesis of vitamin D.
This paper references
Effect of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7.
K. Cho (2000)
Transcriptional responses of human epidermal keratinocytes to cytokine interleukin‐1
Shoichiro Yano (2008)
High mutation frequency in ras genes of skin tumors isolated from DNA repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients.
L. Daya-Grosjean (1993)
Enhancement of UVB radiation–mediated apoptosis by sanguinarine in HaCaT human immortalized keratinocytes
Shannon R Reagan-Shaw (2006)
Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol.
L. Packer (1999)
Inhibition Mechanisms of Bioflavonoids Extracted from the Bark of Pinus maritima on the Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines
K. Cho (2001)
Voluntary exercise together with oral caffeine markedly stimulates UVB light-induced apoptosis and decreases tissue fat in SKH-1 mice
Yao-Ping Lu (2007)
Postreplication repair of DNA in ultraviolet light-irradiated normal and malignancy transformed mouse epidermal cell cultures.
G. Bowden (1978)
Chemoprotective Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates of Broccoli Sprouts
Theresa A. Shapiro (2001)
Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema.
U. Heinrich (2003)
Dietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans.
W. Stahl (2001)
Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. An investigation of Hunnemannia fumariaefolia pseudoalcoholates of sanguinarine and chelerythrine.
L. Mitscher (1978)
The role of Keap1 in cellular protective responses.
A. Dinkova-Kostova (2005)
Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems.
B. Diffey (1991)
Stilbene compounds and stilbene synthase expression during ripening, wilting, and UV treatment in grape cv. Corvina.
A. Versari (2001)
Comparing quantitative measures of erythema, pigmentation and skin response using reflectometry.
J. Wagner (2002)
Ultraviolet B dose-dependent inflammation in humans: a reflectance spectroscopic and laser Doppler flowmetric study using topical pharmacologic antagonists on irradiated skin.
P. Andersen (1992)
Y Zhang (2001)
Health effects from stratospheric ozone depletion and interactions with climate change.
F. D. de Gruijl (2003)
Carotenoids and UV protection.
H. Sies (2004)
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice through interleukin-12-dependent DNA repair.
S. Meeran (2006)
The Inflammasome Mediates UVB-Induced Activation and Secretion of Interleukin-1β by Keratinocytes
Laurence Feldmeyer (2007)
Capsaicin suppresses phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-kappaB/Rel and AP-1 transcription factors in mouse epidermis.
S. Han (2001)
Spectroscopic quantitation of organic isothiocyanates by cyclocondensation with vicinal dithiols.
Y. Zhang (1992)
Suppression of ultraviolet B exposure-mediated activation of NF-kappaB in normal human keratinocytes by resveratrol.
V. Adhami (2003)
14 – Dietary Carotenoids and their Metabolites as Potentially Useful Chemoprotective Agents against Cancer
F. Khachik (1999)
Isoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology.
H. Wei (2003)
Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of T(H)1 immunity: role of dendritic cells.
Hyon-Jeen Kim (2008)
Protective Effect of Sanguinarine on Ultraviolet B‐mediated Damages in SKH‐1 Hairless Mouse Skin: Implications for Prevention of Skin Cancer
H. Ahsan (2007)
Daily coffee consumption and prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Caucasian women
E. Abel (2007)
Involvement of prostaglandins in the immune alterations caused by the exposure of mice to ultraviolet radiation.
H. Chung (1986)
Effect inhibiteurs de caffeine sur l'induction de cancers par les rayons ultraviolet chex la souris. C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances
F Zajdela (1973)
Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress.
S. Katiyar (2001)
Inhibition of ultraviolet B–induced c‐fos gene expression and p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase activation by (‐)‐epigallocatechin gallate in a human keratinocyte cell line
W. Chen (1999)
Isoflavonoid Compounds from Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Protect from Inflammation and Immune Suppression Induced by UV Radiation¶
S. Widyarini (2001)
Caffeine and caffeine sodium benzoate have a sunscreen effect, enhance UVB-induced apoptosis, and inhibit UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice.
Yao-Ping Lu (2007)
Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium.
M. Richelle (2006)
Carotenoids and Flavonoids Contribute to Nutritional Protection against Skin Damage from Sunlight
W. Stahl (2007)
Quantitative determination of isothiocyanates, dithiocarbamates, carbon disulfide, and related thiocarbonyl compounds by cyclocondensation with 1,2-benzenedithiol.
Y. Zhang (1996)
Ultraviolet irradiation induces cyclooxygenase‐2 expression in keratinocytes
Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates.
B. Halkier (2006)
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Photocarcinogenesis Through Inhibition of Angiogenic Factors and Activation of CD8+ T Cells in Tumors
S. K. Mantena (2005)
Associations Between Black Tea and Coffee Consumption and Risk of Lung Cancer Among Current and Former Smokers
J. Baker (2005)
Glucosinolate research in the Arabidopsis
U Wittstock (2001)
Silymarin inhibits UV radiation-induced immunosuppression through augmentation of interleukin-12 in mice
S. Meeran (2006)
Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin.
B. Diffey (2004)
Thiopurines in current medical practice: molecular mechanisms and contributions to therapy-related cancer
P. Karran (2008)
Silibinin inhibits inflammatory and angiogenic attributes in photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice.
M. Gu (2007)
Pyrimidine dimers in ultraviolet-irradiated DNA's.
R. Setlow (1966)
Topical applications of caffeine or (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibit carcinogenesis and selectively increase apoptosis in UVB-induced skin tumors in mice
Yao-Ping Lu (2002)
Immunological Unresponsiveness Induced by Ultraviolet Radiation
M. Kripke (1984)
Lycopene-rich products and dietary photoprotection.
W. Stahl (2006)
The epidemiology of skin cancer
T. Diepgen (2002)
Coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers
A. Nkondjock (2006)
Vitamin D and the skin: an ancient friend, revisited
J. Reichrath (2007)
Triterpenoid electrophiles (avicins) activate the innate stress response by redox regulation of a gene battery.
V. Haridas (2004)
Modulations of critical cell cycle regulatory events during chemoprevention of ultraviolet B-mediated responses by resveratrol in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin
Shannon R Reagan-Shaw (2004)
The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants.
J. Fahey (2001)
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced AP-1 activity.
M. Barthelman (1998)
A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure.
Y. Zhang (1992)
Antioxidants in Photosynthesis and Human Nutrition
B. Demmig-Adams (2002)
Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight.
H. Sies (2004)
Molecular determinants of UV‐induced immunosuppression
A. Schwarz (2002)
Protective effects of resveratrol on UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells through attenuation of the caspase pathway.
K. Park (2008)
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are predominant DNA lesions in whole human skin exposed to UVA radiation
S. Mouret (2006)
Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables.
T. Shapiro (1998)
Protection from photodamage by topical application of caffeine after ultraviolet irradiation
S-W Koo (2007)
Heating decreases epithiospecifier protein activity and increases sulforaphane formation in broccoli.
Nathan V. Matusheski (2004)
Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women.
U. Heinrich (2006)
Caffeine inhibition of postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA in mouse epidermal cells.
G. Bowden (1980)
Effects of singlet oxygen on the extracellular matrix protein collagen: oxidation of the collagen crosslink histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine and histidine.
Virginia Au (2000)
Inhibition of UV‐lnduced Immune Suppression and lnterleukin‐10 Production by Plant Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides
F. Strickland (1999)
Ultraviolet B injury increases prostaglandin synthesis through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. Evidence for UVB-induced epidermal growth factor receptor activation.
C. C. Miller (1994)
Topical capsaicin reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of Mantoux reactions in humans.
R. Howes (2006)
Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer.
V. Melnikova (2005)
Administration of green tea or caffeine enhances the disappearance of UVB-induced patches of mutant p53 positive epidermal cells in SKH-1 mice.
Yao-Ping Lu (2005)
Inhibitory effects of caffeine analogues on neoplastic transformation: structure-activity relationship.
E. A. Rogozin (2008)
Differential regulation of the AP-1 family members by UV irradiation in vitro and in vivo.
K. Isoherranen (1998)
Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma.
M. Alam (2001)
Chemoprevention of skin cancer by grape constituent resveratrol: relevance to human disease?
Moammir H Aziz (2005)
Stimulatory effect of voluntary exercise or fat removal (partial lipectomy) on apoptosis in the skin of UVB light-irradiated mice
Yao-Ping Lu (2006)
Growth stimulation of UV-induced DNA damage retaining epidermal basal cells gives rise to clusters of p53 overexpressing cells.
Joanne G W Nijhof (2007)
Mast cells, neuropeptides, histamine, and prostaglandins in UV-induced systemic immunosuppression.
P. Hart (2002)
Effect inhibiteurs de caffeine sur l'induction de cancers par les rayons ultraviolet chex la souris
F Zajdela (1973)
A major inducer of anticarcino
P Talalay (2006)
Nerve growth factor, neuropeptides, and mast cells in ultraviolet-B-induced systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses in mice.
S. Townley (2002)
Interleukin-12 suppresses ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis by inducing DNA repair
A. Schwarz (2002)
Chlorophyll, chlorophyllin and related tetrapyrroles are significant inducers of mammalian phase 2 cytoprotective genes.
J. Fahey (2005)
Effect of Caffeine on UVB‐induced Carcinogenesis, Apoptosis, and the Elimination of UVB‐induced Patches of p53 Mutant Epidermal Cells in SKH‐1 Mice †
A. Conney (2008)
Inhibition of skin carcinogenesis in vivo by caffeine and other agents.
F. Zajdela (1978)
Xeroderma pigmentosum and the role of UV-induced DNA damage in skin cancer.
H. van Steeg (1999)
The specificity of p53 mutation spectra in sunlight induced human cancers.
L. Daya-Grosjean (1995)
Heating decreases epithiospecifi
NV Matusheski (2002)
Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules?
R. Williams (2004)
Ultraviolet B irradiation-enhanced interleukin (IL)-6 production and mRNA expression are mediated by IL-1 alpha in cultured human keratinocytes.
J. Chung (1996)
Interleukin-12 prevents ultraviolet B-induced local immunosuppression and overcomes UVB-induced tolerance.
A. Schwarz (1996)
The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI.
T. Fitzpatrick (1988)
Ultraviolet B light-induced alterations in epidermal Langerhans cells are mediated in part by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
M. Vermeer (1990)
Nrf 2 - Keap 1 defines a physiologically important stress responsemechanism
H Motohashi (2004)
Epidermal stem and progenitor cells in murine epidermis accumulate UV damage despite NER proficiency.
Joanne G W Nijhof (2007)
Protection against UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 high-risk mice by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts.
A. Dinkova-Kostova (2006)
Nrf2-Keap1 defines a physiologically important stress response mechanism.
H. Motohashi (2004)
Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability.
M. Lee (2002)
Protection from Inflammation, Immunosuppression and Carcinogenesis Induced by UV Radiation in Mice by Topical Pycnogenol®¶
S. Sime (2004)
Coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independently of its aetiology: a case-control study.
U. Gelatti (2005)
Ultraviolet B-irradiated antigen-presenting cells display altered accessory signaling for T-cell activation: relevance to immune responses initiated in skin.
J. Simon (1992)
Importance of phase 2 gene regulation in protection against electrophile and reactive oxygen toxicity and carcinogenesis.
P. Talalay (2003)
Tea consumption and basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer: results of a case-control study.
J. Rees (2007)
Effects of oral administration of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on the formation and growth of tumors in high-risk SKH-1 mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light.
Y. Lou (1999)
Inhibitory effects of orally administered green tea, black tea, and caffeine on skin carcinogenesis in mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light (high-risk mice): relationship to decreased tissue fat.
Y. Lu (2001)
Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic
L Packer (1999)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-, JNK-, ERK-) activation pattern induced by extracellular and intracellular singlet oxygen and UVA.
L. O. Klotz (1999)
In vivo functions of carotenoids in higher plants
B. Demmig‐Adams (1996)
Coffee and risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma in a large cohort study in Japan
Y. Kurozawa (2005)
Clones of normal keratinocytes and a variety of simultaneously present epidermal neoplastic lesions contain a multitude of p53 gene mutations in a xeroderma pigmentosum patient.
C. Williams (1998)
Neutralization of IL-12 in vivo prevents induction of contact hypersensitivity and induces hapten-specific tolerance.
H. Riemann (1996)
The family of sunlight-related eye diseases.
R. Young (1994)
ferential regulation of the AP - 1 family members by UV irradiation in vitro and in vivo
K Isoherranen (1998)
Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane
HJ Kim (2007)
Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair
B. Thiers (2007)
Carotenoid radical chemistry and antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties.
Ali El-Agamey (2004)
UV-specific mutations of the human patched gene in basal cell carcinomas from normal individuals and xeroderma pigmentosum patients.
L. Daya-Grosjean (2000)
Polyphenolic Antioxidant (‐)‐Epigallocatechin‐3‐Gallate from Green Tea Reduces UVB‐lnduced Inflammatory Responses and Infiltration of Leukocytes in Human Skin
S. Katiyar (1999)
What is light?
B. Diffey (2002)
Protection by ultraviolet A and B sunscreens against in situ dipyrimidine photolesions in human epidermis is comparable to protection against sunburn.
A. Young (2000)
Biphasic effect of UVA radiation on STAT1 activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in cultured human keratinocytes.
C. Maziére (2000)
Prevention of Ultraviolet Radiation–Induced Immunosuppression by (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Mice Is Mediated through Interleukin 12–Dependent DNA Repair
S. Meeran (2006)
Constitutive plant toxins and their role in defense against herbivores and pathogens.
Ute Wittstock (2002)
Stimulatory effect of oral administration of tea, coffee or caffeine on UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis of SKH-1 mice.
A. Conney (2007)
Topical treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and genistein after a single UV exposure can reduce skin damage.
R. M. Brand (2008)
Sunburn and p53 in the onset of skin cancer
A. Ziegler (1994)
Photoprotective effect of isoflavone genistein on ultraviolet B-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and PCNA expression in human reconstituted skin and its implications in dermatology and prevention of cutaneous carcinogenesis.
Julian O Moore (2006)
A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology.
P. Rohdewald (2002)
Mechanisms and preclinical efficacy of silibinin in preventing skin cancer.
R. Singh (2005)
Spectral reflectance of human skin in vivo.
P. Andersen (1990)
A role for neuropeptides in UVBinduced systemic immunosuppression
J Garssen (1998)
coli sprout extracts
P Thejass (2006)
Cell survival responses to environmental stresses via the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway.
T. Kensler (2007)
The effects on human health from stratospheric ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change.
M. Norval (2007)
Prevention of UVB-induced immunosuppression in mice by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be associated with alterations in IL-10 and IL-12 production.
S. Katiyar (1999)
Effect of UV irradiation on epidermal cell cytokine production.
T. Schwarz (1989)
UVA-mediated activation of signaling pathways involved in skin tumor promotion and progression.
M. Bachelor (2004)
Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety.
J. Ross (2002)
UV Doses Worldwide ¶†
D. Godar (2005)
Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation
P. Talalay (2007)
Revisiting the photochemistry of solar UVA in human skin
D. Mitchell (2006)
The pathways and molecular mechanisms regulating Nrf2 activation in response to chemical stress.
T. Nguyen (2004)
Immune regulation by polysaccharides: implications for skin cancer.
F. Strickland (2001)
Oligosaccharins, brassinolides, and jasmonates: nontraditional regulators of plant growth, development, and gene expression.
R. Creelman (1997)
Exceptionally high protection of photocarcinogenesis by topical application of (--)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in hydrophilic cream in SKH-1 hairless mouse model: relationship to inhibition of UVB-induced global DNA hypomethylation.
A. Mittal (2003)
Direct and indirect antioxidant properties of inducers of cytoprotective proteins.
A. Dinkova-Kostova (2008)
Inhibitory effects of perillyl alcohol on UVB-induced murine skin cancer and AP-1 transactivation.
M. Barthelman (1998)
Enhanced photocarcinogenesis in interleukin-12-deficient mice.
A. Maeda (2006)
cellular protective responses
TW Kensler (2005)
Discovery and development of sulforaphane as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical
Y. Zhang (2007)
Inflammation, gene mutation and photoimmunosuppression in response to UVR-induced oxidative damage contributes to photocarcinogenesis.
G. Halliday (2005)
Azathioprine and UVA Light Generate Mutagenic Oxidative DNA Damage
P. O'donovan (2005)
Protection against cancer by plant phenylpropenoids: induction of mammalian anticarcinogenic enzymes.
A. Dinkova-Kostova (2002)
Antiinflammatory activity of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Chelidonium majus.
J. Lenfeld (1981)
IL-10 Controls Ultraviolet-Induced Carcinogenesis in Mice1
K. Loser (2007)
Green tea polyphenol (−)‐epigallocatechin‐3‐gallate treatment to mouse skin prevents UVB‐induced infiltration of leukocytes, depletion of antigen‐presenting cells, and oxidative stress
S. Katiyar (2001)
Effect of caffeine on the ATR/Chk1 pathway in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated mice.
Yao-Ping Lu (2008)
Prevention of short-term ultraviolet B radiation-mediated damages by resveratrol in SKH-1 hairless mice.
F. Afaq (2003)
The role of JNK and p38 MAPK activities in UVA-induced signaling pathways leading to AP-1 activation and c-Fos expression.
Amy L. Silvers (2003)
Induction of the Phase 2 Response in Mouse and Human Skin by Sulforaphane-containing Broccoli Sprout Extracts
A. Dinkova-Kostova (2007)
Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence
J. Baur (2006)
Ultraviolet B Regulation of Transcription Factor Families: Roles of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) in UVB-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis
Cooper Sj (2007)
Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals
Young-Joon Surh (2003)
Quantitative determination of
I. Ahmad (2003)
Ultraviolet radiation-mediated damage to cellular DNA.
J. Cadet (2005)
Alkaloid biosynthesis: metabolism and trafficking.
J. Ziegler (2008)
Antioxidant functions of sulforaphane: a potent inducer of Phase II detoxication enzymes.
J. Fahey (1999)
Immunomodulatory activity of Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea).
P. Thejass (2007)
Tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: influence of type of tea beverages.
I. A. Hakim (2000)
Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals.
H-H Sherry Chow (2003)
Safety, Tolerance, and Metabolism of Broccoli Sprout Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates: A Clinical Phase I Study
T. Shapiro (2006)
A time-correlation study of ultraviolet B-induced erythema measured by reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry.
P. Andersen (1991)
Phytochemicals as Protectors .
AT Dinkova-Kostova (2008)
Glucosinolate research in the Arabidopsis era.
Ute Wittstock (2002)
Discovery and development of sulforaphane
L. Tang (1992)
Green Tea Phenol Extracts Reduce UVB‐induced DNA Damage in Human Cells via Interleukin‐12 †
A. Schwarz (2008)
IL-8 gene expression and production in human keratinocytes and their modulation by UVB.
S. Kondo (1993)
Postharvest Induction Modeling Method Using UV Irradiation Pulses for Obtaining Resveratrol-Enriched Table Grapes: A New “Functional” Fruit?
E. C. Villar (2001)
This paper is referenced by
Update on Photoprotection
Y. Gilabertea (2017)
Flavonoid-Rich Nutrients for the Skin
W. Stahl (2010)
Protective effect of Vaccinium myrtillus extract against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells).
R. Calò (2014)
Protective effect of C. sativa leaf extract against UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line.
I. Almeida (2015)
Carotenoids, inflammation, and oxidative stress--implications of cellular signaling pathways and relation to chronic disease prevention.
Anouk Kaulmann (2014)
UVA photoprotective properties of an artificial carotenylflavonoid hybrid molecule.
C. Hundsdörfer (2012)
Antioxidants of plant origin in cosmetic products: Physicochemical properties and photoprotective potential
Radava R. Martić (2018)
Sambucus nigra L. ameliorates UVB-induced photoaging and inflammatory response in human skin keratinocytes
P. Lin (2019)
The Protective Effect of Violaxanthin from Nannochloropsis oceanica against Ultraviolet B‐Induced Damage in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts
H. Kim (2019)
Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation in an in vitro model; part I; UV-C radiation.
L. A. A. Soriano-Melgar (2014)
Protective Effect of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Isolated from Cladophora wrightiana Harvey Against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Cell Damage in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes
J. Cha (2014)
Protective effect of sulforaphane against cisplatin-induced mitochondrial alterations and impairment in the activity of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 and γ glutamyl cysteine ligase: studies in mitochondria isolated from rat kidney and in LLC-PK1 cells.
C. E. Guerrero-Beltrán (2010)
INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON PLANT SECONDARY METABOLITE PRODUCTION
Z. Katerova (2013)
In vitro antioxidant and photoprotective activity of five native Brazilian bamboo species
K. Wróblewska (2019)
UPDATES AND ADDITIONS for Herbal Contraindications &Drug Interactions plus Herbal Adjuncts with Medicines
F. Brinker (2016)
Cancer chemopreventive agents in plants - a continuing challenge.
A. Gescher (2008)
Sunscreen-Based Skin Protection Against Solar Insult: Molecular Mechanisms and Opportunities
G. Wondrak (2014)
Nutritional approach to sun protection: a suggested complement to external strategies.
N. Shapira (2010)
Green Tea Polyphenols Provide Photoprotection , Increase Microcirculation , and Modulate Skin Properties of Women 1 , 2
U. Heinrich (2011)
Solar radiation induced skin damage: Review of protective and preventive options
A. Svobodová (2010)
Intake of saffron reduces γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice
A. Koul (2017)
The Effects of Black Mulberry Supplementation on Plasma Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α Response to One Session Basketball Training in Female Basketball Players
F. Ghazalian (2018)
Radioprotective effect of adenine on irradiation-induced apoptosis.
X. Wang (2013)
Contemporary Radiation Countermeasures
V. Patel (2011)
Icariin and icaritin recover UVB-induced photoaging by stimulating Nrf2/ARE and reducing AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways: a comparative study on UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes.
Eunson Hwang (2018)
THE INFLUENCE OF CAROTENOIDS ON FITNESS RELATED TRAITS IN ANURANS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EX SITU CONSERVATION
V. Ogilvy (2011)
Prunella vulgaris extract and rosmarinic acid prevent UVB-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes
J. Vostálová (2009)
Efectos de la quercetina sobre las alteraciones en el comportamiento y estrés oxidativo inducidos por rayos X en ratas
R. Hernández (2013)
7-Hydroxycoumarin prevents UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and subsequent overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory markers in human dermal fibroblast cells.
R. Karthikeyan (2016)
Synthesis and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of halogenated alkaloids from boldine
L. Milián (2011)
Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars
M. S. Shams Ardekani (2011)
Flavonoide als vielseitige Wirkstoffe für die Haut - Fokus Luteolin
Ute Wölfle (2017)See more