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Analysis Of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance From 2005 To 2015 In Victoria, Australia: A Comparison Of The Old And The New

Jodie D'Costa, Megan Gooey, Nicole Richards, Rizmina Sameer, Elaine Lee, Doris Chibo

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Background Baseline genotyping is part of standard-of-care treatment. It reveals that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) continues to be important for the management of HIV infection. Attention is typically focused on determining whether resistance to the protease inhibitors (PI) and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) occurs. However, the increasing use of integrase inhibitors (INIs) raises a concern that TDR to this class of antiretroviral drug may also occur. Methods: PI and RTI drug resistance genotyping was performed on blood samples collected between 2005 and 2015 from 772 treatment-naïve Victorian patients infected with HIV within the previous 12 months. Integrase genotyping was performed on 461 of the 485 patient samples collected between 2010 and 2015. Results: In the period 2005–10, 39 of 343 patients (11.4%) had at least one PI- or RTI-associated mutation, compared with 34 of 429 (7.9%) during the period 2011–15. Compared with 2005–10, during 2011–15 there was a significant decline in the prevalence of the non-nucleoside-associated mutation K103N and the nucleoside-associated mutations at codons M41 and T215. One patient was detected with a major INI resistance mutation, namely G118R. However, this mutation is rare and its effect on susceptibility is unclear. A small number of patients (n = 12) was infected with HIV containing accessory resistance mutations in the integrase gene. Conclusions: The lack of transmitted resistance to INIs is consistent with a low level of resistance to this class of drugs in the treated population. However, continued surveillance in the newly infected population is warranted as the use of INIs increases.