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Human Nod1 Confers Responsiveness To Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides*

N. Inohara, Y. Ogura, Felicia F. Chen, A. Muto, G. Núñez
Published 2001 · Biology, Medicine

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The immune response to microbial pathogens is initiated by recognition of specific pathogen components by host cells both at the cell surface and in the cytosol. While the response triggered by pathogen products at the surface of immune cells is well characterized, that initiated in the cytosol is poorly understood. Nod1 is a member of a growing family of intracellular proteins with structural homology to apoptosis regulators Apaf-1/Ced-4 and a class of plant disease-resistant gene products. Here we show that bacterial lipopolysaccharides, but not other pathogen components tested, induced TLR4- and MyD88-independent NF-κB activation in human embryonic kidney 293T cells expressing trace amounts of Nod1. Nod2, another Nod family member, also conferred responsiveness to bacterial components but with a response pattern different from that observed with Nod1. As it was reported for plant disease-resistant R proteins, the leucine-rich repeats of Nod1 and Nod2 were required for lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation. A lipopolysaccharide binding activity could be specifically coimmunopurified with Nod1 from cytosolic extracts. These observations suggest that Nod1 and Nod2 are mammalian counterparts of plant disease-resistant gene products that may function as cytosolic receptors for pathogen components derived from invading bacteria.
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