Photocatalytic Degradation Of The Herbicide Pendimethalin Using Nanoparticles Of BaTiO3/TiO2 Prepared By Gel To Crystalline Conversion Method: A Kinetic Approach
Published 2008 · Chemistry, Medicine
Photocatalytic degradation of the herbicide, pendimethalin (PM) was investigated with BaTiO3/TiO2 UV light system in the presence of peroxide and persulphate species in aqueous medium. The nanoparticles of BaTiO3 and TiO2 were obtained by gel to crystallite conversion method. These photo catalysts are characterized by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm and reflectance spectral studies. The quantum yields for TiO2 and BaTiO3 for the degradation reactions are 3.166 Einstein m−2 s−1 and 2.729 Einstein m−2 s−1 and catalytic efficiencies are 6.0444 × 10−7 mg−2h−1L2 and 5.403 × 10−7 mg−2h−1L2, respectively as calculated from experimental results. BaTiO3 exhibited comparable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of pendimethalin as the most widely used TiO2 photocatalyst. The persulphate played an important role in enhancing the rate of degradation of pendimethalin when compared to hydrogen peroxide. The degradation process of pendimethalin followed the first-order kinetics and it is in agreement with Langmuir-Hinshelwood model of surface mechanism. The reason for high stability of pendimethalin for UV-degradation even in the presence of catalyst and oxidizing agents were explored. The higher rate of degradation was observed in alkaline medium at pH 11. The degradation process was monitored by spectroscopic techniques such as ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis), infrared (IR) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The major intermediate products identified were: N-propyl-2-nitro-6-amino-3, 4-xylidine, (2, 3-dimethyl-5-nitro-6-hydroxy amine) phenol and N-Propyl-3, 4-dimethyl-2, 6-dinitroaniline by GC-MS analysis and the probable reaction mechanism has been proposed based on these products.