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20 Years Of Fish Immunotoxicology – What We Know And Where We Are

Kristina Rehberger, I. Werner, B. Hitzfeld, H. Segner, L. Baumann
Published 2017 · Biology, Medicine

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Abstract Despite frequent field observations of impaired immune response and increased disease incidence in contaminant-exposed wildlife populations, immunotoxic effects are rarely considered in ecotoxicological risk assessment. The aim of this study was to review the literature on immunotoxic effects of chemicals in fish to quantitatively evaluate (i) which experimental approaches were used to assess immunotoxic effects, (ii) whether immune markers exist to screen for potential immunotoxic activities of chemicals, and (iii) how predictive those parameters are for adverse alterations of fish immunocompetence and disease resistance. A total of 241 publications on fish immunotoxicity were quantitatively analyzed. The main conclusions included: (i) To date, fish immunotoxicology focused mainly on innate immune responses and immunosuppressive effects. (ii) In numerous studies, the experimental conditions are poorly documented, as for instance age or sex of the fish or the rationale for the selected exposure conditions is often missing. (iii) Although a broad variety of parameters were used to assess immunotoxicity, the rationale for the choice of measured parameters was often not given, remaining unclear how they link to the suspected immunotoxic mode of action of the chemicals. (iv) At the current state of knowledge, it is impossible to identify a set of immune parameters that could reliably screen for immunotoxic potentials of chemicals. (v) Similarly, in fish immunotoxicology there is insufficient understanding of how and when chemical-induced modulations of molecular/cellular immune changes relate to adverse alterations of fish immunocompetence, although this would be crucial to include immunotoxicity in ecotoxicological risk assessment.
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The impact of environmental hormonally active substances on the endocrine and immune system of fish
H. Segner (2006)
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The Risk of Infection from Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in the Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): A Case–Control Approach
A. Hall (2006)
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The Relationship Between Noncoplanar PCB-Induced Immunotoxicity and Hepatic CYP1A Induction in a Fish Model
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The impact of environmental hormonally active substances on the endocrine and immune systems of fish. Fish endocrinology
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10.1016/J.FSI.2007.01.015
Effect of sex-steroid hormones, testosterone and estradiol, on humoral immune parameters of gilthead seabream.
A. Cuesta (2007)
10.1016/J.FSI.2006.06.011
Effects of dietary beta-1, 3 glucan on innate immune response of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea.
Q. Ai (2007)
10.1016/J.FSI.2007.03.010
Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus.
D. Christybapita (2007)
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An Experimental Test of the Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis in a Teleost Fish: 11‐Ketotestosterone Suppresses Innate Immunity in Three‐Spined Sticklebacks*
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Bioindicators of Immune Function in Creosote-adapted Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus
L. A. Frederick (2007)
10.1016/J.AQUATOX.2006.11.013
Combined effects of herbicides on biomarkers reflecting immune-endocrine interactions in goldfish. Immune and antioxidant effects.
M. Fatima (2007)
10.1897/06-449R.1
Effect of in vitro and in vivo organotin exposures on the immune functions of murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).
A. Harford (2007)
10.1210/ER.2007-0001
The complex role of estrogens in inflammation.
R. Straub (2007)
10.1016/J.FSI.2007.03.004
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides induce genes involved in the innate immune response in embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Joerg Watzke (2007)
10.1016/J.FSI.2006.08.001
Persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure augments temperature induced immunosuppression in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings.
A. K. Verma (2007)
10.1093/TOXSCI/KFM072
Effects of low concentrations of arsenic on the innate immune system of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).
A. Nayak (2007)
10.1073/pnas.0609568104
Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen
K. Kidd (2007)
10.1111/J.1749-7345.2006.00069.X
Effect of Sublethal Hypoxia on the Immune Response and Susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Enteric Septicemia
T. Welker (2007)
10.1016/J.TOXLET.2006.10.020
Gene expression responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to 17-beta estradiol.
T. Williams (2007)
10.1016/J.AQUATOX.2007.06.014
Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
H. M. Salo (2007)
10.1016/J.FSI.2007.02.004
Immunotoxicity and hepatic function evaluation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.
M. I. Girón-Pérez (2007)
10.1016/J.AQUATOX.2006.11.004
Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus.
D. Ghosh (2007)
10.1016/J.AQUATOX.2007.03.017
Effects of tributyltin on the immune system of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Ayako Nakayama (2007)
10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60038-2
Immunotoxicity of bisphenol A to Carassius auratus lymphocytes and macrophages following in vitro exposure.
D. Yin (2007)
10.1093/TOXSCI/KFM244
Immunotoxicity: the risk is real.
M. Selgrade (2007)
Effects of dietary b-1, 3 glucan on innate immune response of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea
Q Ai (2007)
Effects of dietary
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10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.04.009
Real-time PCR array to study effects of chemicals on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis of the Japanese medaka.
X. Zhang (2008)
10.1038/nature07281
Agrochemicals increase trematode infections in a declining amphibian species
J. Rohr (2008)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.02.007
Effects of dexamethasone on host innate and adaptive immune responses and parasite development in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with Loma salmonae.
J. Lovy (2008)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.02.006
Effects of the organochlorines p,p'-DDE and lindane on gilthead seabream leucocyte immune parameters and gene expression.
A. Cuesta (2008)
10.1021/ES800633Q
Derivation of an aquatic predicted no-effect concentration for the synthetic hormone, 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol.
D. Caldwell (2008)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.003
Expression of immune-regulatory genes in juvenile Chinook salmon following exposure to pesticides and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).
Kai J. Eder (2008)
10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.02.021
Toxicogenomic analysis of immune system-related genes in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to heavy oil.
K. Nakayama (2008)
10.1002/9780470285251
Molecular and biochemical toxicology
R. Smart (2008)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.012
Exposure of Ancistrus multispinis (Regan, 1912, Pisces, Teleostei) to deltamethrin: effects on cellular immunity.
C. T. Pimpão (2008)
10.1016/j.bcp.2008.07.019
Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid action: why should we consider influences by environmental chemicals?
A. Odermatt (2008)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.07.019
Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to model toxicants.
T. Williams (2008)
10.1016/j.fsi.2007.10.002
Effects of inulin on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) innate immune parameters.
R. Cerezuela (2008)
10.1093/toxsci/kfn024
Surface marker-defined head kidney granulocytes and B lymphocytes of rainbow trout express benzo[a]pyrene-inducible cytochrome P4501A protein.
A. Nakayama (2008)
10.1016/j.cbpc.2008.06.007
The effects of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): exposure duration and contribution of suspended particles.
N. Hébert (2008)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.002
Effects of diazinon and diazoxon on the lymphoproliferation rate of splenocytes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): the immunosuppresive effect could involve an increase in acetylcholine levels.
M. I. Girón-Pérez (2008)
10.4049/jimmunol.181.7.4807
Vaccination-Induced Systemic Autoimmunity in Farmed Atlantic Salmon
E. Koppang (2008)
10.1201/9780203647295.CH11
The Immune System of Fish: A Target Organ of Toxicity
E. Carlson (2008)
10.1016/j.etap.2007.12.007
Gene expression profiles in liver of zebrafish treated with microcystin-LR.
Lili Wei (2008)
10.1016/j.cbpc.2008.04.007
Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
N. Hébert (2008)
Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in teleost fish
B. V. Kemenade (2009)
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.04.020
Effects of neurotoxic insecticides on heat-shock proteins and cytokine transcription in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).
Kai J. Eder (2009)
10.1021/tx800198m
Developmental immunotoxicology: focus on health risks.
R. Dietert (2009)
10.1016/j.envint.2008.09.002
Exposure assessment of the pharmaceutical diclofenac based on long-term measurements of the aquatic input.
M. Letzel (2009)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.11.004
Effects of dietary vitamin D3 administration on innate immune parameters of seabream (Sparus aurata L.).
R. Cerezuela (2009)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.11.001
Solea senegalensis genes responding to lipopolysaccharide and copper sulphate challenges: large-scale identification by suppression subtractive hybridization and absolute quantification of transcriptional profiles by real-time RT-PCR.
María-José Prieto-Álamo (2009)
10.1016/j.fsi.2009.02.007
beta-Glucan administration enhances disease resistance and some innate immune responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
I. Rodríguez (2009)
10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.025
Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).
G. Grinwis (2009)
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.10.016
In vitro analysis of inflammatory responses following environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals and inland waters.
H. Khalaf (2009)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.03.008
Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus.
L. Iwanowicz (2009)
Developmental and Comparative Immunology
D. Macqueen (2009)
10.1016/j.cbpc.2009.06.004
Immunotoxicological effects of an activated-sludge-treated effluent on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
C. Müller (2009)
10.1016/j.dci.2008.07.004
Morphine affects the inflammatory response in carp by impairment of leukocyte migration.
M. Chadzinska (2009)
10.1016/j.fsi.2008.11.002
Oxidative stress in macrophages from spleen of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to sublethal concentration of endosulfan.
M. C. Téllez-Bañuelos (2009)
10.1897/08-642.1
Effect of 17beta-estradiol on the immunocompetence of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus).
H. Thilagam (2009)
10.1098/rstb.2009.0128
Effects of environmental change on wildlife health
K. Acevedo-Whitehouse (2009)
10.1016/j.cub.2009.06.068
Fish immunology
G. Lieschke (2009)
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B. V. Kemenade (2009)
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The Effect of In Vitro Exposure to Tributyltin on the Immune Competence of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Leukocytes
Ichiro Misumi (2009)
10.1016/J.CBPC.2009.02.003
Progestogens cause immunosuppression of stimulated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leukocytes in vitro.
C. Pietsch (2009)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.01.005
Immunotoxicological effects of a sub-chronic exposure to selected current-use pesticides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Lesley K. Shelley (2009)
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.04.001
Immune effects of HFO on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.
A. Bado-Nilles (2009)
b-Glucan administration enhances disease resistance and some innate immune responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
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Effects of environmental
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Uptake and biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical diclofenac in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
A. C. Mehinto (2010)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.09.017
Interactive effects of infectious diseases and pollution in aquatic molluscs.
N. Morley (2010)
10.1093/toxsci/kfq242
A quarter-century of immunotoxicology: looking back, looking forward.
R. House (2010)
10.1177/1091581810377518
Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Exposure to Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)
H. Connelly (2010)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.10.025
Hepatic gene expression in flounder chronically exposed to multiply polluted estuarine sediment: Absence of classical exposure 'biomarker' signals and induction of inflammatory, innate immune and apoptotic pathways.
M. Leaver (2010)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.07.020
The effects of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon retene on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response.
N. Hogan (2010)
10.1016/j.fsi.2010.06.003
Exposure to sublethal concentration of glyphosate or atrazine-based herbicides alters the phagocytic function and increases the susceptibility of silver catfish fingerlings (Rhamdia quelen) to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge.
L. C. Kreutz (2010)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.01.013
Disease susceptibility of salmon exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
M. Arkoosh (2010)
10.1007/s00018-010-0495-3
T-cell recognition of chemicals, protein allergens and drugs: towards the development of in vitro assays
S. Martin (2010)
10.1007/978-1-60761-401-2_1
Immunotoxicology testing: past and future.
M. Luster (2010)
10.1016/j.fsi.2009.11.017
Endosulfan increases seric interleukin-2 like (IL-2L) factor and immunoglobulin M (IgM) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Aeromona hydrophila.
M. C. Téllez-Bañuelos (2010)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05125.x
Dioxin and immune regulation
N. Marshall (2010)
10.1111/J.1365-2435.2010.01738.X
Neuroendocrine‐immune crosstalk in vertebrates and invertebrates: implications for host defence
G. Demas (2010)
10.1002/etc.34
Adverse outcome pathways: a conceptual framework to support ecotoxicology research and risk assessment.
G. Ankley (2010)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.07.023
Functionalization impacts the effects of carbon nanotubes on the immune system of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
R. Klaper (2010)
10.1016/j.fsi.2010.02.009
Effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the transcription of genes related to the innate immune system in the early developmental stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Yuanxiang Jin (2010)
10.1016/j.watres.2009.08.023
Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality.
M. Schriks (2010)
10.1016/j.fsi.2011.01.016
Dietary administration of beta-mercapto-ethanol treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhanced the growth, innate immune response and disease resistance of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
A. Tukmechi (2011)
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.06.021
In vivo effects of the soluble fraction of light cycle oil on immune functions in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linné).
A. Bado-Nilles (2011)
10.1016/j.dci.2011.03.015
Estrogen-responsive genes in macrophages of the bony fish gilthead seabream: a transcriptomic approach.
S. Liarte (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2010.10.011
Effects of polyamines on cellular innate immune response and the expression of immune-relevant genes in gilthead seabream leucocytes.
M. Reyes‐Becerril (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2010.11.006
Gene expression and TNF-alpha secretion profile in rainbow trout macrophages following exposures to copper and bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
M. Teles (2011)
10.1111/J.1365-2435.2010.01777.X
Fitness consequences of immune responses: strengthening the empirical framework for ecoimmunology
A. Graham (2011)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.11.002
Hydroxylated fullerenes inhibit neutrophil function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, 1820).
B. Jovanović (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2011.07.013
Effects of dietary β-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).
S. Lin (2011)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.09.013
Liver antioxidant and plasma immune responses in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil.
Thomas Milinkovitch (2011)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.06.022
Effects of in vivo chronic hydrocarbons pollution on sanitary status and immune system in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).
M. Danion (2011)
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.10.017
Effects of nanosized titanium dioxide on innate immune system of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, 1820).
B. Jovanović (2011)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.06.016
Moving beyond a descriptive aquatic toxicology: the value of biological process and trait information.
H. Segner (2011)
10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.007
Endocrine disrupting compounds: can they target the immune system of fish?
A. Casanova-Nakayama (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2011.10.003
Effects of low concentration of endosulfan on proliferation, ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and senescence in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) splenocytes.
M. C. Téllez-Bañuelos (2011)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.06.004
Changes in gene transcription and whole organism responses in larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following short-term exposure to the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin.
S. Beggel (2011)
10.1007/s10646-010-0588-7
The effects of estrogenic and androgenic endocrine disruptors on the immune system of fish: a review
S. Milla (2011)
10.1021/es104105e
Synthetic glucocorticoids in the environment: first results on their potential impacts on fish.
S. Kugathas (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2010.10.010
Cortisol modulates the induction of inflammatory gene expression in a rainbow trout macrophage cell line.
R. Castro (2011)
10.1016/j.dci.2011.07.001
Teleost fish interferons and their role in immunity.
J. Zou (2011)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.011
Multistressor interactions in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): Concurrent phenanthrene exposure and Mycobacterium marinum infection.
C. Prosser (2011)
10.1016/j.dci.2011.05.001
The interleukins of fish.
C. Secombes (2011)
10.1002/etc.439
Biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight PAH mixture.
C. Bravo (2011)
10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.01.020
Heavy oil exposure induces high moralities in virus carrier Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.
J. Song (2011)
10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.09.004
Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system: a missing link in the global battle against infectious disease?
Bethany N Winans (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2010.09.012
Altered hematological and immunological parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) following short term exposure to sublethal concentration of glyphosate.
L. C. Kreutz (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2011.04.007
17Beta-estradiol affects the response of complement components and survival of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) challenged by bacterial infection.
M. Wenger (2011)
10.1016/j.fsi.2011.02.001
Embryonic exposure to cypermethrin induces apoptosis and immunotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Yuanxiang Jin (2011)
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.07.021
Bioconcentration and immunotoxicity of an experimental oil spill in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).
M. Danion (2011)
10.1016/j.molimm.2011.07.001
Dietary intake of 17α-ethinylestradiol promotes leukocytes infiltration in the gonad of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream.
I. Cabas (2011)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06632.x
Sex steroids, immune system, and parasitic infections: facts and hypotheses
K. Nava-Castro (2012)
10.1007/s11356-012-0887-z
Gender-specific modulation of immune system complement gene expression in marine medaka Oryzias melastigma following dietary exposure of BDE-47
R. R. Ye (2012)
10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.11.006
The effects of an in vitro exposure to 17β-estradiol and nonylphenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peripheral blood leukocytes.
Lesley K. Shelley (2012)
10.1098/rstb.2012.0011
Ecophysiology meets conservation: understanding the role of disease in amphibian population declines
A. Blaustein (2012)
10.1016/J.AQUACULTURE.2012.01.003
Modulation of the immune parameters and expression of genes of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) by dietary administration of oxytetracycline
F. Guardiola (2012)
10.1007/s10126-012-9473-0
Estrogen Modulates Hepatic Gene Expression and Survival of Rainbow Trout Infected with Pathogenic Bacteria Yersinia ruckeri
M. Wenger (2012)
10.1021/es3005128
Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
R. Connon (2012)
10.1007/s11356-012-0737-z
A time-course study of immune response in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus exposed to heavy oil
J. Song (2012)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.12.011
The acute and sub-chronic exposures of goldfish to naphthenic acids induce different host defense responses.
Mariel O Hagen (2012)
10.3109/1547691X.2012.661486
Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) testing of pharmaceuticals: Current practices, state of the science, knowledge gaps, and recommendations
M. Collinge (2012)
10.1016/j.fsi.2012.05.021
Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in carp blood and head kidney leukocytes exposed to cyanotoxin stress--an in vitro study.
A. Rymuszka (2012)
10.1016/j.dci.2011.09.011
17α-Ethynylestradiol alters the immune response of the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) both in vivo and in vitro.
I. Cabas (2012)
10.1016/j.fsi.2012.05.020
Immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects of atrazine, permethrin and piperonyl butoxide to rainbow trout following in vitro exposure.
Lesley K. Shelley (2012)
10.1016/j.fsi.2012.01.030
Dexamethasone modulates expression of genes involved in the innate immune system, growth and stress and increases susceptibility to bacterial disease in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).
E. Salas-Leitón (2012)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.08.007
Toxicity of atrazine and nonylphenol in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on general health, disease susceptibility and gene expression.
Lesley K. Shelley (2012)
10.1016/j.fsi.2012.08.006
Innate immune response of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to atrazine.
Luiz Carlos Kreutz (2012)
10.1016/j.fsi.2012.01.004
Slow release cortisol implants result in impaired innate immune responses and higher infection prevalence following experimental challenge with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.
K. Gadan (2012)
10.1007/s11356-012-0978-x
Immunotoxic effects of environmental toxicants in fish — how to assess them?
H. Segner (2012)
10.1016/j.dci.2012.07.005
Cortisol modulates the expression of cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in rainbow trout hepatocytes.
A. Philip (2012)
10.1016/j.taap.2011.11.004
In vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs).
E. Corsini (2012)
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.08.027
Immunotoxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on brocarded carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
X. Li (2012)
Immunotoxicity of 1-methyl3-octylimidazolium bromide on brocarded carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Li X-Y (2012)
17beta-Ethynylestradiol alters the immune response of the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) both in vivo and in vitro
A azar (2012)
10.1016/j.cbpb.2013.03.001
Analysis of immune gene expression modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in head kidney of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
D. Hur (2013)
10.14573/altex.2013.4.411
Immunotoxicology: challenges in the 21st century and in vitro opportunities.
T. Hartung (2013)
10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.03.003
17β-Estradiol induces changes in cytokine levels in head kidney and blood of juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L., 1758).
F. Seemann (2013)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.10.009
Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout.
Gillian Z MacDonald (2013)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.08.009
The immunological effects of oil sands surface waters and naphthenic acids on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
L. A. Leclair (2013)
10.1021/es402065a
The Read-Across Hypothesis and Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals
M. Rand-Weaver (2013)
10.1016/j.fsi.2013.04.041
Acute toxic responses of the rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) to Iranian heavy crude oil: feeding disrupts the biotransformation and innate immune systems.
H. N. Kim (2013)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.03.015
Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).
F. Guardiola (2013)
10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.02.026
Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout.
R. Burki (2013)
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Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
R. Cortés (2013)
10.1002/etc.2245
The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on oxidative stress and innate immune response in zebrafish embryos.
H. Xu (2013)
10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.09.014
Alteration of immune function endpoints and differential expression of estrogen receptor isoforms in leukocytes from 17β-estradiol exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Lesley K. Shelley (2013)
10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60202-2
In vitro immunotoxicity of untreated and treated urban wastewaters using various treatment processes to rainbow trout leucocytes.
F. Gagné (2013)
10.1016/j.fsi.2013.08.030
The cytokine networks of adaptive immunity in fish.
T. Wang (2013)
10.1016/j.molimm.2012.09.013
Review: Endocrine disrupting chemicals and immune responses: a focus on bisphenol-A and its potential mechanisms.
J. A. Rogers (2013)
10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.364
Cytotoxic effects and changes in cytokine gene expression induced by microcystin-containing extract in fish immune cells--an in vitro and in vivo study.
A. Rymuszka (2013)
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.05.023
Toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, the contents of complement C3 and IgM, and IgM and complement C3 expressions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
X. Li (2013)
10.1016/j.fsi.2013.06.011
Accumulation, histopathology and immunotoxicological effects of waterborne cadmium on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).
F. Guardiola (2013)
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