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Synthesis, Structure-activity Relationship And In Vitro Evaluation Of Coelenterazine And Coelenteramine Derivatives As Inhibitors Of Lipid Peroxidation

M. Burton, C. De Tollenaere, Jean-François Cavalier, C. Marchand, F. Dussart, J. Marchand-Brynaert, J. Rees
Published 2003 · Medicine, Chemistry

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Coelenterazine (2-p -hydroxybenzyl-6-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-8-benzyl-3,7-dihydroimidazolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one, CLZn) and coelenteramine (2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pyrazine CLM), first described as luciferin and etioluciferin, respectively, of bioluminescent systems in marine organisms are endowed with antioxidant properties. This study was aimed at understanding the structural basis of their chain-breaking properties and at designing new compounds with improved antioxidative properties. For this, a series of 2-amino-1,4-pyrazine derivatives and their related imidazolopyrazinones were synthesised and examined for their capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation in linoleate micelles subjected to the peroxidizing action of AAPH. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the reduction of the peroxidation rate by CLM is mainly determined by the concomitant presence of 5-p-hydroxyphenyl and 2-amino groups in para position. The lipophilic character of substituents also affected this effect. All imidazolopyrazinones induced a lag-time before the onset of the peroxidation process. The hetero-bicyclic imidazolopyrazinone moiety appears as the main contributor to this activity while phenol groups play little role in it. On the other hand, phenol groups were required for the reduction of the peroxidation rate after the lag-phase. The introduction of a supplementary p-hydroxyphenyl substituent at C8 position did not increase chain-breaking properties. The substitution of the C5-p-hydroxyphenyl with a catechol moiety or the introduction of a second amino group on the pyrazine ring yielded the most active compounds, superior to imidazolopyrazinones and reference antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate, vitamin E and trolox. The strong antioxidant properties of 2,6-diaminopyrazines are not dependent on the presence of hydroxyl groups indicating that their reaction mechanism differs from that of 2-amino-1,4-pyrazine derivatives.
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