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CCD Series No-20: High-flux Low-energy Upgrade Of Municipal Water Supplies With 96% Recovery For Boiler-feed And Related Applications
Published 2016 · Materials Science
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AbstractThis study describes the application of closed circuit desalination (CCD) as a first pass for boiler-feed supplies with high recovery (96%) and low energy (0.34 kWh/m3) from a municipal source (553 μS/cm) comprising the scaling constituents Ca (65 ppm), SO4 (180 ppm), SiO2 (32 ppm), F (1.2 ppm), Ba (0.022 ppm), and Sr (0.295 ppm) in addition to modest amounts of Na (65 ppm) and Cl (18.8 ppm). The 96% recovery trials were performed using a pilot comprised of a single module (8″) with three elements (ESPA2-MAX) under fixed flow and variable pressure consecutive sequential CCD conditions at flux of 27.5 lmh and feed temperature of 20.7°C. Under the specified trial conditions, average permeates of 13 μS/cm electric conductivity (~6.5 ppm) are produced with energy consumption of 0.59 kWh/m3 which translates 0.34 kWh/m3 at 25°C and pressurizing means efficiency of 75%. The process proceeds at pH 5.0 in the presence of an antiscalant (Hydrex-4192 and 4102) with recycled concentrates of high super-saturat...