Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Multiple Homicide: Patterns Of Serial And Mass Murder

J. Fox, J. Levin
Published 1998 · Sociology

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Over the past decade the topic of multiple homicide-serial and mass murder-has attracted increased attention in the field of criminology. Though far from the epidemic suggested in media reports, it is alarming nonetheless that a small number of offenders account for so much human destruction and widespread fear. The serial killer is typically a white male in his late twenties or thirties who targets strangers encountered near his work or home. These killers tend to be sociopaths who satisfy personal needs by killing with physical force. Demographically similar to the serial killer, the mass murderer generally kills people he knows well, acting deliberately and methodically. He executes his victims in the most expedient way-with a firearm. Importantly, the difference of timing that distinguishes serial from mass murder may also obscure strong similarities in their motivation. Both can be understood within the same motivational typology-power, revenge, loyalty, profit, and terror. The research literature, still in its infancy, is more speculative than definitive, based primarily on anecdotal evidence rather than hard data. Future studies should make greater use of comparison groups and seek life-cycle explanations-beyond early childhood-which recognize the unique patterns and characteristics of multiple murderers. A research focus on murder in the extreme may also help us understand more commonplace forms of interpersonal violence.
This paper references
Violent Crime Scene Analysis: Modus Operandi, Signature, and Staging
J E Douglas (1992)
Women Serial and Mass Murderers: A Worldwide Reference, 1580 through 1990
K Segrave (1992)
The Role of Humiliation and Embarrassment in Serial Murder." Psychology
New York Farrar (1994)
10.1176/AJP.146.7.887
The presumptive role of fantasy in serial sexual homicide.
R. Prentky (1989)
10.1136/bmj.2.5056.1308
Psychopaths
J. Newcombe (1957)
10.2307/2074314
Stranger Violence: A Theoretical Inquiry
M. Riedel (1993)
10.1177/0306624X9604000304
Catathymic Violence, Dissociation, and Adoption Pathology: Implications for the Mental Status Defense
David Kirschner (1996)
Targeting Victims: Serial Killers and the Urban Environment
D K Rossmo (1996)
Suicide and homicide.
D. Cain (1991)
Violent Crime Scene Analysis: Modus
New Haven (1992)
10.1176/AJP.124.5.693
Mass murder: the Wagner case.
H. Bruch (1967)
Who Killed Precious
H P Jeffers (1991)
Mass, Serial and Sensational Homicides." Bulletin
P. E. Press. Dietz (1986)
10.1001/JAMA.1987.03390090118038
The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide
B. C. Einspruch (1987)
10.1520/JFS173720371
A psychiatric study of a violent mass murderer.
G. S. Evseeff (1972)
Sexual Homicide: Patterns and Motives
Robert K. Ressler (1988)
A Working Definition of Serial Murder and the Reduction of Linkage Blindness.
S. A. Egger (1984)
Compliant victims of the sexual sadist.
R. Hazelwood (1993)
The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program-VICAP: A Progress Report.
J. B. Howlett (1986)
The Criminal Sexual Sadist." FBI Law Enforcement
New York Simon (1992)
10.1177/0306624X9503900402
Serial Murder: A More Accurate and Inclusive Definition
K. Heide (1995)
Profiling Violent Crimes: An Investigative Tool
R. Holmes (1989)
Mass, serial and sensational homicides.
P. E. Dietz (1986)
Overkill: Mass Murder and Serial Killing Exposed
J. Fox (1994)
High Risk: Children Without A Conscience
Carole A. McKelvey (1988)
10.1177/1043986299015001002
Hate Crimes
B. Levin (1999)
The Lust Murderer." FBI Law Enforcement
R. R. Hazelwood (1980)
Faces Of The Enemy
S. Keen (1986)
10.1002/CBM.1995.5.3.246
MURDER IN AMERICA
R. Gibb (1995)
Chemical Classification of Violent Criminals." Paper presented at the thirty-seventh annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, November
W. J. Walsh (1985)
Serial Killers: The Growing Menace
J Norris (1988)
To Kill Again
(1991)
Mass, serial and sensational homicides.
Dietz Pe (1986)
The Role of Humiliation and Embarrassment in Serial Murder
R Hale (1994)
10.2307/2069278
Pornography and Sexual Aggression.
P. Bart (1986)
Cultural Aspects of Multiple Murder
E Berne (1950)
The Darker Figure of Crime: The Serial Murder Enigma.
K. Kiger (1990)
Psychology of a Mass Murderer.
R. S. 9107-22. Banay (1956)
Serial Killers: How Statistics Mislead Us.
J. A. Fox (1985)
Using Murder: The Social Construction of Serial Homicide
P. Jenkins (1994)
10.2307/2089195
Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency.
G. Sykes (1957)
The Mind of the Murderer
M. Partridge (1958)
Serial Murder: A New Phenomenon of Homicide." Paper presented at the tenth triennial meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences, Oxford, England, September
J. E. Douglas (1984)
Special Issue: Violent Crime
R K Ressler (1985)
A Study of Multiple Murder: Preliminary Examination of the Interface between Epistemology and Methodology
K A Busch (1986)
Criminal Personality Profiling: An Outcome and Process Study
A J Pinizzotto (1990)
The Random Killers
M Starr
10.2307/20043033
The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide
F. Stern (1986)
The Sexual Component of Serial Murder
C Skrapec (1996)
10.2307/2072605
Crimes of obedience: Toward a social psychology of authority and responsibility.
H. C. Kelman (1990)
Serial Murderers: Four Case Histories.
F. H. Leibman (1989)
10.1038/154378A0
Frustration and Aggression
J. Cohen (1944)
Serial and Mass Murder
T. O'Reilly-Fleming (1996)
10.2307/1142488
Murder and Madness
D. Lunde (1976)
10.2307/2076297
Serial Murderers and their Victims
E. Hickey (1991)
An American tragedy.
J. Parker (1998)
10.1016/c2009-0-21861-7
Pornography and Sexual Aggression
Van Horn (1991)
Brain Stimulation and the Origin of Violent Behavior
E S Valenstein (1976)
Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press. Rule, A
T. O'Reilly-Fleming (1980)
Psychological test study of a mass murderer.
Kahn Mw (1960)
Paper presented at the thirty-seventh annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology
W J Walsh
The Sexually Sadistic Serial Killer." In Serial and Mass Murder
J. Warren (1996)
Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press
T. O'Reilly-Fleming (1982)
The Supplementary Homicide Reports, 1976-1995. Data set. Boston
(1997)
10.1176/AJP.143.7.838
Psychiatric, neurological, and psychoeducational characteristics of 15 death row inmates in the United States.
D. O. Lewis (1986)
Serial Murder: Future Implications
R. D. Press. Keppel (1989)
The Stranger Beside Me
A. Rule (1980)
10.1080/10511259200082521
A case study method for teaching theoretical criminology
J. D. Quinn (1992)
The Murdering Mind
D. Abrahamsen (1973)
10.2307/2071572
Compulsive Killers: The Story of Modern Multiple Murder
E. Goode (1986)
Crime in the United States: The Uniform Crime Reports
(1969)
Killing Sequentially: Expanding the Parameters of the Conceptualization of Serial and Mass Murder Killers
M L Dietz (1996)
10.1111/J.1745-9125.1975.TB00656.X
A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF HOMICIDE RATES IN THE UNITED STATES
W. G. Doerner (1975)
10.1007/BF01542713
Sadism and other paraphilias in normal controls and aggressive and nonaggressive sex offenders
O. Fedora (1992)
Targeting Victims: Serial Killers and the Urban Envi
(1996)
10.5860/choice.31-1225
Men, Women, And Aggression
A. Campbell (1994)
10.1177/0002716294536001002
Firing Back: The Growing Threat of Workplace Homicide
J. Fox (1994)
10.1111/J.1745-9125.1990.TB01317.X
BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES IN CRIMINOLOGY
D. Fishbein (1990)
Predicting Violent Behavior and Classifying Violent Offenders.
J. New York Basic. Chaiken (1994)
10.2307/1143738
Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon
K. Heide (1990)
Biological Perspectives in Criminology." Criminology 28:27-72
D. H. 211-15. Fishbein (1990)
10.1176/AJP.115.12.1057
Psychiatric study of a mass murderer.
J. Galvin (1959)
Myth and Murder: The Serial Killer Panic of 1983-85.
P. Jenkins (1988)
Special Issue: Violent Crime." FBI Law Enforcement
R. K. Ressler (1985)
The impact of mass media
P. G. Aldrich (1975)
10.1176/PS.43.8.789
Classification of amok in DSM-IV.
A. Gaw (1992)
10.1177/002581726503300405
The Lust Murderer
E. Podolsky (1965)
10.2307/2117722
The Impact of Mass Media Violence on U.S. Homicides
D. Phillips (1983)
Disorders of Sexual Desire
H S Kaplan (1979)
10.1520/JFS14033J
The sexually sadistic serial killer.
J. Warren (1996)
Serial Murder: A New Phenomenon of Homicide
R K Ressler
The psychology of murder
S. Palmer (1962)
10.1177/088626086001001002
The Study of Multiple Murder
K. A. Busch (1986)
10.1177/1088767999003003003
Serial Murder
N. Mott (1999)
Evaluation of the Psychological Profiling Program
(1981)
Violence and Social Impact.
S. H. Frazier (1975)
Serial Murderers: Early Proposed Development Typology
N Ansevics (1991)
Psychological test study of a mass murderer.
M. W. Kahn (1960)
Breaking Point: The Workplace Violence Epidemic and What to Do about It
J A Kinney (1993)
Serial Killers: The Insatiable Passion
D. Probation 5341-45. Lester (1995)
10.2307/1143457
Mass Murder: America's Growing Menace
J. Levin (1985)
Serial Murder: Future Implications for Police Investigations
R. Keppel (2000)
Amok
J Westermeyer (1982)
10.2307/590519
The lust to kill
G. Howarth (1987)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/bsl.2385
Harming animals and massacring humans: Characteristics of public mass and active shooters who abused animals.
A. Arluke (2018)
Domestic Homicide and the Death Penalty
J. Messing (2008)
10.1177/1557988314551359
Men, Masculinities, and Murder-Suicide
J. Oliffe (2015)
Crime linkage and its application to serial, stranger, sexual assaults
C. Slater (2016)
Masculinity Threat, Misogyny, and the Celebration of Violence in White Men
Maria N. Scaptura (2019)
Status and slaughter: The psycho-social factors that influence public mass murder
Stephen G. VanGeem (2009)
Women Killers in the Domestic Context
Jill Theresa Messing (2004)
The Economics of Mass Shootings
Abel Brodeur (2019)
10.1177/1557085119896415
Masculinity Threat, “Incel” Traits, and Violent Fantasies Among Heterosexual Men in the United States
Maria N. Scaptura (2020)
10.1080/19434472.2020.1762108
Are mass shootings acts of terror? Applying key criteria in definitions of terrorism to mass shootings in the United States from 1982 to 2018
Lance Y. Hunter (2020)
10.1080/10282580.2015.1025623
Discourse of decency: white nationalists, white antiracists, and the criminality of color
Matthew W. Hughey (2015)
10.1002/bsl.994
Predatory violence aiming at relief in a case of mass murder: Meloy's criteria for applied forensic practice.
F. Declercq (2011)
10.4018/978-1-5225-5670-1.CH005
Looking upstream: A sociological investigation of mass public shootings
Joel A Capellan (2016)
10.1177/0306624X10371794
Charles Manson and the Family
Andrew J Atchison (2011)
Narrating violent crime and negotiating Germanness:the print news media and the National Socialist Underground (NSU), 2000-2012
J. Graef (2017)
10.1177/1088767909334760
Sliding Down the Slippery Slope of Multiple Murder
G. Duwe (2009)
10.1016/B978-0-12-385243-4.00021-6
Chapter 21 – Mass Murder
B. Turvey (2012)
A Sequential Model
Jack Levin (2009)
10.1007/S11896-017-9245-X
Serial Homicide Perpetrators’ Self-Reported Psychopathy and Criminal Thinking
S. Culhane (2019)
Document Title: Updated Assessment of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban: Impacts on Gun Markets and Gun Violence, 1994-2003
C. Koper (2004)
10.1080/14786010801972670
The Starkweather Syndrome: exploring criminal history antecedents of homicidal crime sprees 1
M. DeLisi (2008)
10.3389/feduc.2017.00037
50 Differences That Make a Difference: A Compendium of Frequently Confused Term Pairs in Psychology
S. Lilienfeld (2017)
10.1177/0002764217739660
Narcissism, Fame Seeking, and Mass Shootings
B. Bushman (2018)
10.1177/0049124102031002003
Studying Rare Events Through Qualitative Case Studies
D. Harding (2002)
10.1016/B978-0-12-374998-7.00013-7
Chapter 13 – Understanding Serial Sexual Murder: A Biopsychosocial Approach
R. Homant (2009)
Fiction and Reality: Serial Killers as a Product of Postmodern Fiction
Lauren Phegley (2017)
10.1080/14789949.2015.1054858
Mass murderers in the United States: predictors of offender deaths
Adam Lankford (2015)
10.1007/978-1-4614-5526-4_4
School Rampage in International Perspective: The Salience of Cumulative Strain Theory
Eric Madfis (2013)
10.1080/01639625.2016.1241060
Criminal Poisoning and Product Tampering: Toward an Operational Definition of Malicious Contamination
M. Wilson (2017)
10.1111/SOC4.12730
Making a murderer: The importance of gender and violence against women in mass murder events
Alison Marganski (2019)
10.1136/ip.2006.013714
Australia’s 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings
S. Chapman (2006)
The Perception And Knowledge Of Serial And Mass Murder
Kendra N. Bowen (2007)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar