Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Dry Electrodes For Electrocardiography.

N. Meziane, J. Webster, M. Attari, A. Nimunkar
Published 2013 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Patient biopotentials are usually measured with conventional disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes. These electrodes provide excellent signal quality but are irritating for long-term use. Skin preparation is usually required prior to the application of electrodes such as shaving and cleansing with alcohol. To overcome these difficulties, researchers and caregivers seek alternative electrodes that would be acceptable in clinical and research environments. Dry electrodes that operate without gel, adhesive or even skin preparation have been studied for many decades. They are used in research applications, but they have yet to achieve acceptance for medical use. So far, a complete comparison and evaluation of dry electrodes is not well described in the literature. This work compares dry electrodes for biomedical use and physiological research, and reviews some novel systems developed for cardiac monitoring. Lastly, the paper provides suggestions to develop a dry-electrode-based system for mobile and long-term cardiac monitoring applications.
This paper references
10.1088/0967-3334/20/1/008
Real time impedance plots with arbitrary frequency components.
A. Searle (1999)
input impedance ECG amplifier for long-term monitoring of athletes Med. Devices: Evidence Res
G Gargiulo (2010)
10.1109/ICECS.1999.813183
An ultra-low power pre-amplifier for pasteless electrocardiography
M. J. Burke (1999)
10.1007/BF02441041
Analysis for the change of skin impedance
T. Yamamoto (2006)
10.1161/01.CIR.34.4.649
Skin‐Electrode Impedance and Its Effect on Recording Cardiac Potentials
M. S. Spach (1966)
Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrodeskin impedance
R Paradiso (1979)
10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090536
2-Scale topography dry electrode for biopotential measurements
F. Vanlerberghe (2011)
10.1007/BF02407675
Temporal changes in electrode impedance while recording the electrocardiogram with “Dry” electrodes
L. Geddes (2006)
10.1109/RBME.2010.2084078
Dry-Contact and Noncontact Biopotential Electrodes: Methodological Review
Y. Chi (2010)
An Unhealthy America:The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease
Ross C. DeVol (2007)
Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrodeskin impedance
H OlsonW (1979)
10.1007/BF02478741
Electrical properties of the epidermal stratum corneum
T. Yamamoto (1973)
10.1109/TBME.2004.836503
Electrocardiographic motion artifact versus electrode impedance
S. Wiese (2005)
A micropower dryelectrode ECG preamplifier IEEE Trans
J BurkeM (2000)
10.1109/ICICS.2003.1292424
Cancellation of humming GSM mobile telephone noise
I. Claesson (2003)
10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260155
Measurement of noise and impedance of dry and wet textile electrodes, and textile electrodes with hydrogel
M.M. Puurtinen (2006)
60 - Hz Interference in electrocardiography IEEE Trans
C HuhtaJ (1973)
10.1007/BF02446089
Noise characteristics of stainless-steel surface electrodes
D. Godin (2006)
Flexible PDMSbased dry electrodes for electro - optic acquisition of ECG signals in wearable devices Proc
S FernandesM (2010)
10.1097/00004669-197807000-00017
Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design
J. Webster (1997)
Rehabilitation Robotics pp
M DRibeiroD (2011)
10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5626295
Wireless fabric patch sensors for wearable healthcare
H. Yoo (2010)
10.5860/choice.26-0676
Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation
J. Webster (1988)
10.4065/80.10.1286
Cellular telephone interference with medical equipment.
J. L. Tri (2005)
10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091184
Can driven-right-leg circuits increase interference in ECG amplifiers?
J. Gomez-Clapers (2011)
10.1109/TBME.2008.923108
Direct Interference Canceling for Two-Electrode Biopotential Amplifier
In-Duk Hwang (2008)
10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4353650
Flexible dry surface-electrodes for ECG long-term monitoring
K.-P. Hoffmann (2007)
An improved verylow power pre - amplifier for use with ungelled electrodes in ECG recording Biol
C Assambo (2007)
10.1007/BF02510529
Non-polarisable dry electrode based on NASICON ceramic
C. Gondran (2006)
60 - Hz Interference in electrocardiography IEEE Trans
J Huhta (1973)
The origin of skinstretchcaused motion artifacts under electrodes Physiol
H DeTalhouet (1996)
10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5627799
Flexible PDMS -based dry electrodes for electro-optic acquisition of ECG signals in wearable devices
M. S. Fernandes (2010)
Reducing skin potential motion artifact by skin abrasion
P BurbankD (1978)
10.1109/TBME.1971.4502833
Electrocardiogram Recording with Pasteless Electrodes
G. Bergey (1971)
A comparison of conductive textilebased and silver / silver chloride gel electrodes in exercise electrocardiogram recordings Electrocardiology
V Marozas (2011)
10.1088/0957-0233/23/12/125703
Active flexible concentric ring electrode for non-invasive surface bioelectrical recordings
G. Prats-Boluda (2012)
10.1109/ICICS.2005.1689270
Notch Filtering of humming GSM mobile telephone noise
I. Claesson (2005)
An improved micro-power pre-amplifier for dry-electrode ECG recording
M. Burke (2007)
10.1088/0957-0233/23/12/125701
Improving electrochemical performance of flexible thin film electrodes with micropillar array structures
S. Myllymaa (2012)
Rehabilitation Robotics pp
M DRibeiroD (2011)
10.1088/0967-3334/34/1/N1
Towards true unipolar bio-potential recording: a preliminary result for ECG.
Gaetano D. Gargiulo (2013)
Medical Measurements and Applications pp 92–96
E-P Scilingo (1992)
10.1109/TBME.1980.326595
Ground-Free ECG Recording with Two Electrodes
N. Thakor (1980)
10.1109/MEMEA.2010.5480198
Design of a gel-less two-electrode ECG monitor
E. Richard (2010)
b Dielectric constant and resistivity of epidermal stratum corneum Med
T Yamamoto (1976)
Electrocardiogram recording with pasteless electrodes IEEE Trans
E BergeyG (1971)
10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5626161
Low power wireless acquisition module for wearable health monitoring systems
C. Figueiredo (2010)
10.1109/TBME.1973.324169
60-HZ interference in electrocardiography.
J. Huhta (1973)
10.1109/BSN.2011.39
Properties of Dry and Non-contact Electrodes for Wearable Physiological Sensors
Neil Gandhi (2011)
10.1007/BF02524247
Low-power ECG amplifier/detector for dry-electrode heart rate monitoring
M. Burke (2006)
10.1109/IMTC.1998.679764
Impedance balancing analysis for power-line interference elimination in ECG signal
Adli (1998)
The role of the World Heart Federation
A BDeLuna (1999)
Direct interference canceling for twoelectrode biopotential amplifier IEEE Trans
D HwangI (2008)
A bariumtitanateceramics capacitivetype EEG electrode IEEE Trans
T Matsuo (1973)
Wearable ECG acquisition system with compact planar - fashionable circuit board - based shirt IEEE Trans
J Yoo (2009)
Bioelectrodes Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation vol 1 ed
H MCarim (1988)
10.1007/BF02442929
Reducing skin potential motion artefact by skin abrasion
D. P. Burbank (2006)
10.1088/0967-3334/28/11/005
Novel dry electrodes for ECG monitoring.
A. Gruetzmann (2007)
10.1109/IEMBS.1996.656866
Low-cost active electrode improves the resolution in biopotential recordings
A. C. MettingVanRijn (1996)
10.1016/J.SNA.2003.10.071
Towards the integration of textile sensors in a wireless monitoring suit
Michael Catrysse (2004)
10.1109/10.161342
Clinical application of an active electrode using an operational amplifier
S. Nishimura (1992)
10.1109/IEMBS.1998.746206
High frequency interference effects in amplifiers for biopotential recordings
M.J. van der Horst (1998)
10.1109/TITB.2005.854506
Performance evaluation of sensing fabrics for monitoring physiological and biomechanical variables
E. Scilingo (2005)
10.1007/978-3-642-50209-5
Electrotherapy of the Heart
M. Schaldach (1992)
10.1007/BF02443828
Pasteless electrode for clinical use
C. Luca (2006)
A 2010a Wearable dry sensors with Bluetooth connection for use in remote patient monitoring systems Stud
G Gargiulo (2010)
Electrotherapy of the Heart: Technical Aspects in Cardiac Pacing
M. Schaldach (1992)
10.1007/BF02478741
Electrical properties of the epidermal stratum corneum.
T. Yamamoto (1976)
Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrode-skin
W HOlson (1979)
Bioelectrodes Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation vol 1 2nd edn ed
Biomed. Eng (2006)
10.1016/b978-0-12-374004-5.x0001-3
Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics
Ø. G. Martinsen (2000)
Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrode-skin impedance.
Olson Wh (1979)
Improving electrochemical performance of flexible thin film electrodes with micropillar array structures Meas
S Nishimura (2012)
10.1088/0967-3334/17/2/003
The origin of skin-stretch-caused motion artifacts under electrodes.
H. de Talhouet (1996)
10.1109/TITB.2009.2033053
A Wearable ECG Acquisition System With Compact Planar-Fashionable Circuit Board-Based Shirt
J. Yoo (2009)
Reducing skin potential motion artifact by skin abrasion Med
D PBurbank (1978)
Medical Measurements and Applications pp 92–96
E-P Scilingo (1992)
10.1109/TITB.2005.854512
A wearable health care system based on knitted integrated sensors
R. Paradiso (2005)
10.1109/TITB.2009.2025817
Smart Textile-Based Wearable Biomedical Systems: A Transition Plan for Research to Reality
Sungmee Park (2010)
10.1007/BF02347705
Two-electrode biopotential amplifier with current-driven inputs
D. Dobrev (2006)
10.1016/J.SNA.2007.11.019
Flexible polymeric dry electrodes for the long-term monitoring of ECG
Ju Yeoul Baek (2008)
Study of vital sign monitoring
M Silva (2009)
10.1111/J.1600-0536.1996.TB02190.X
Contact dermatitis from propylene glycol in ECG electrode gel
W. Uter (1996)
10.1109/ICORR.2009.5209576
Comparison of surface EMG monitoring electrodes for long-term use in rehabilitation device control
C. Pylatiuk (2009)
from electrocardiograph - monitoring electrodes : role of p - tert - butylphenol - formaldehyde resin Contact Dermatitis
M Avenel-Audran (2003)
10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5627359
Dry electrode bio-potential recordings
G. Gargiulo (2010)
Wearable ECG acquisition system with compact planar-fashionable
Eng. Med (2009)
An Improved Very-Low Power Pre-amplifier for use with Un-gelled Electrodes in ECG Recording
C. Assambo
10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260443
Long-Term Characterization of Electrode Materials for Surface Electrodes in Biopotential Recording
K.-P. Hoffmann (2006)
Contact dermatitis from electrocardiographmonitoring electrodes : role of ptertbutylphenolformaldehyde resin Contact Dermatitis
M Avenel-Audran (2003)
The bumps have it when it comes to CardioWare Med
J LisyF (2013)
An ultra - low power pre - amplifier for pasteless electrocardiography Proc
J BurkeM (1999)
10.1016/j.clinph.2009.12.025
A new EEG recording system for passive dry electrodes
G. Gargiulo (2010)
10.1109/TBME.1977.326117
Minimizing Electrode Motion Artifact by Skin Abrasion
H. Tam (1977)
10.1007/978-3-642-03904-1_85
Ambulant ECG Recording with Wet and Dry Electrodes: A Direct Comparison of two Systems
Silvester Fuhrhop (2009)
10.1109/IEMBS.1996.656864
A simple active electrode for power line interference reduction in high resolution biopotential measurements
M. Fernandez (1996)
10.1109/IEMBS.2004.1403645
Dry electrodes for monitoring of vital signs in functional textiles
J. Muhlsteff (2004)
Towards true unipolar biopotential recording : a preliminary result for ECG Physiol
D GargiuloG (2013)
An improved micropower pre - amplifier for dryelectrode ECG recording Proc
J BurkeM (2007)
10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2009.07.012
Meet the challenge of high-pass filter and ST-segment requirements with a DC-coupled digital electrocardiogram amplifier.
R. Abächerli (2009)
An improved micropower pre - amplifier for dry - electrode ECG recording Proc
J BurkeM (2007)
Design of a gelless twoelectrode ECG monitor MeMeA : Proc
E Richard (2010)
Wearable ECG acquisition system with compact planar-fashionable
Eng. Med (2009)
10.1088/0034-4885/77/7/076601
The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear.
Tobias Reichenbach (2014)
10.1088/0967-3334/21/2/307
A direct comparison of wet, dry and insulating bioelectric recording electrodes.
A. Searle (2000)
Electrode jelly in electrocardiography Brit
D Lewes (1965)
silver/silver chloride gel electrodes in exercise electrocardiogram recordings Electrocardiology
J CMarquez (2010)
10.2147/MDER.S9321
An ultra-high input impedance ECG amplifier for long-term monitoring of athletes
G. Gargiulo (2010)
10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5627305
Textile electrode straps for wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance measurements for Body Composition Analysis. Initial validation & experimental results
J. C. Marquez (2010)
Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics 2nd edn (Oxford: Elsevier
S Grimnes (2008)
10.1109/MEMEA.2011.5966735
A wearable device for recording of biopotentials and body movements
P. Bifulco (2011)
Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrode-skin impedance.
W. H. Olson (1979)
10.1053/EUHJ.1998.1392
International co-operation in world cardiology. The role of the World Heart Federation
A. B. D. Luna (1999)
10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.12.004
A comparison of conductive textile-based and silver/silver chloride gel electrodes in exercise electrocardiogram recordings.
V. Marozas (2011)
10.1109/IEMBS.1995.579823
Noise analysis of NASICON ceramic dry electrodes
S. Yacoub (1995)
10.4065/76.1.11
Cellular phone interference with external cardiopulmonary monitoring devices.
J. L. Tri (2001)
10.1109/TBME.1973.324197
A barium-titanate-ceramics capacitive-type EEG electrode.
T. Matsuo (1973)
Wearable ECG acquisition system with compact planarfashionable circuit boardbased shirt IEEE Trans
J Yoo (2009)
Cellular telephone interference with medical
J LTri (2005)
The role of the World Heart Federation
(1999)
10.1034/j.1600-0536.2003.480210.x
Contact dermatitis from electrocardiograph‐monitoring electrodes: role of p‐tert‐butylphenol‐formaldehyde resin
M. Avenel-Audran (2003)
10.1109/IECON.2009.5414898
Study of vital sign monitoring with textile sensors in swimming pool environment
M. Silva (2009)
10.3233/978-1-60750-659-1-57
Wearable dry sensors with bluetooth connection for use in remote patient monitoring systems.
G. Gargiulo (2010)
Nuclear Cardiology : its Role in Cost-effective Care
(2012)
10.13031/2013.24191
Biological Hydrogen Production via Bacteria Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Gel Beads
B. Hu (2007)
10.1007/BF02478045
Dielectric constant and resistivity of epidermal stratum corneum
T. Yamamoto (2006)
10.1109/10.821734
A micropower dry-electrode ECG preamplifier
M. Burke (2000)
Low power wireless acquisition module for wearable health monitoring systems Proc
P FigueiredoC (2010)
a Electrical properties of the epidermal stratum corneum Med
T Yamamoto (1976)
motion artifact versus electrode impedance
S Yacoub (1995)
Pasteless electrode for clinical use Med
J DeLucaC (1979)
10.1136/hrt.27.1.105
ELECTRODE JELLY IN ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY
D. Lewes (1965)
10.1109/TBME.2010.2102353
Novel Dry Polymer Foam Electrodes for Long-Term EEG Measurement
C. Lin (2011)
非較正分光計,電流測定,数値シミュレーションを適用した空気中誘電体バリア放電の定量的特性化
Rajasekaran Priyadarshini (2012)
10.1007/978-3-642-03891-4
World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7-12, 2009 Munich, Germany: Neuroengineering, Neural Systems, Rehabilitation and Prosthetics. Vol. 25/IX
O. Dössel (2009)
10.1109/JSEN.2011.2114649
A Novel Dry Active Biosignal Electrode Based on an Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Interface Material
D. D. Ribeiro (2011)



This paper is referenced by
10.1080/09205063.2016.1239951
Carbon nanotube-based self-adhesive polymer electrodes for wireless long-term recording of electrocardiogram signals
Benyan Liu (2016)
10.1088/0022-3727/46/9/093001
Memristor-based neural networks
Andy Thomas (2013)
10.3390/s20123449
Electrode Humidification Design for Artifact Reduction in Capacitive ECG Measurements
Y. Tang (2020)
10.3390/s16101573
Design and Evaluation of Novel Textile Wearable Systems for the Surveillance of Vital Signals
I. Trindade (2016)
10.1515/bmt-2019-0167
Properties of different types of dry electrodes for wearable smart monitoring devices
Lana Popović-Maneski (2020)
10.1002/advs.201900939
All‐in‐One, Wireless, Stretchable Hybrid Electronics for Smart, Connected, and Ambulatory Physiological Monitoring
Yun-Soung Kim (2019)
10.17638/03076592
Methodological Development of Visual Electrodiagnostic of Records with poor SNR: With application in Calibration, Quality Assurance, Collaboration and Training
Rasam Aliazizi (2020)
10.1088/2057-1976/AB1674
Design considerations for effective neural signal sensing and amplification: a review
K. Sharma (2019)
10.4015/S1016237217500211
DRY ELECTRODE MATERIAL TESTING AND GAIN ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE ARM ECG SYSTEM
V. Raj (2017)
10.1016/j.bspc.2016.11.008
A flexible touch sensor based on conductive elastomer for biopotential monitoring applications
P. S. Das (2017)
10.1016/J.SNA.2019.06.041
Highly conformable stretchable dry electrodes based on inexpensive flex substrate for long-term biopotential (EMG/ECG) monitoring
Peyman Fayyaz Shahandashti (2019)
10.1007/978-3-030-02819-0_26
Impedance Characteristics of the Skin-Electrode Interface of Dry Textile Electrodes for Wearable Electrocardiogram
F. Xiong (2019)
10.1155/2017/4803752
Cardiorespiratory Frequency Monitoring Using the Principal Component Analysis Technique on UWB Radar Signal
E. Pittella (2017)
10.1109/GIOTS.2019.8766424
Challenges of Wearable Health Monitors : A Case study of Foetal ECG Monitor
Chitra Balakrishna (2019)
10.1016/J.SNA.2017.12.006
Electrical impedance performance of metal dry bioelectrode with different surface coatings
W. Liu (2018)
10.1109/JSEN.2020.2999101
A Flexible Multilayered Dry Electrode and Assembly to Single-Lead ECG Patch to Monitor Atrial Fibrillation in a Real-Life Scenario
Dakun Lai (2020)
10.1016/J.SNA.2015.10.041
Long term biopotential recording by body conformable photolithography fabricated low cost polymeric microneedle arrays
A. Srivastava (2015)
Uma Comparação entre Topologias de Amplificadores de Biopotencial para Eletrodos Secos Ativos baseados em PCI.
C. E. Teixeira (2015)
10.3390/s18020396
A Flexible Multiring Concentric Electrode for Non-Invasive Identification of Intestinal Slow Waves
V. Zena-Giménez (2018)
10.1088/1367-2630/15/1/015008
Fluid Shear Stress Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis via Trimeric Death Receptors.
Michael J Mitchell (2013)
10.1109/LSC.2018.8572212
Non-Invasive and Flexible Electrodes Based on Multimaterial Fiber for sEMG Signal Detection
C. L. Fall (2018)
10.1109/TIM.2019.2907038
Establishing the Input Impedance Requirements of ECG Recording Amplifiers
S. Maji (2020)
Caracterización espectroscópica de impedancia de polímeros para el uso en electrodos de electrocardiogramas
Bremmen Veliz (2016)
10.1016/J.SBSR.2018.05.001
Development of printed and flexible dry ECG electrodes
A. Chlaihawi (2018)
10.1088/0967-3334/35/10/2101
A new method to assess skin treatments for lowering the impedance and noise of individual gelled Ag-AgCl electrodes.
G. Piervirgili (2014)
10.20960/nh.1126
Looking for optimum ECG electrodes for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The need for evaluation.
C. González-Correa (2018)
10.1039/c7lc00914c
Wearable sensors: modalities, challenges, and prospects.
J. Heikenfeld (2018)
Textile based electrodes for ECG and EMG measurements
André P. Catarino (2017)
10.3929/ethz-b-000278193
Thermal and Electrical Energy Converters and Interfaces for the Internet of Humans
Moritz Thielen (2018)
10.1088/1367-2630/15/3/035015
Controlling cell–matrix traction forces by extracellular geometry
S. Banerjee (2013)
10.3390/s20133651
Dry Electrodes for Human Bioelectrical Signal Monitoring
Yulin Fu (2020)
10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.37043
Lessons from the current European Heart Rhythm Association consensus document on screening for atrial fibrillation
E. Özcan (2018)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar