Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Histopathological And Behavioral Characterization Of A Novel Cervical Spinal Cord Displacement Contusion Injury In The Rat.

D. Pearse, T. P. Lo, K. S. Cho, M. P. Lynch, M. Garg, A. Marcillo, A. R. Sanchez, Y. Cruz, W. Dietrich
Published 2005 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Cervical contusive trauma accounts for the majority, of human spinal cord injury (SCI), yet experimental use of cervical contusion injury models has been limited. Considering that (1) the different ways of injuring the spinal cord (compression, contusion, and transection) induce very different processes of tissue damage and (2) the architecture of the spinal cord is not uniform, it is important to use a model that is more clinically applicable to human SCI. Therefore, in the current study we have developed a rat model of contusive, cervical SCI using the Electromagnetic Spinal Cord Injury Device (ESCID) developed at Ohio State University (OSU) to induce injury by spinal cord displacement. We used the device to perform mild, moderate and severe injuries (0.80, 0.95, and 1.1 mm displacements, respectively) with a single, brief displacement of <20 msec upon the exposed dorsal surface of the C5 cervical spinal cord of female (180-200 g) Fischer rats. Characterization of the model involved the analysis of the temporal histopathological progression of the injury over 9 weeks using histochemical stains to analyze white and gray mater integrity and immunohistochemistry to examine cellular changes and physiological responses within the injured spinal cord. Accompanying the histological analysis was a comprehensive determination of the behavioral functionality of the animals using a battery of motor tests. Characterization of this novel model is presented to enable and encourage its future use in the design and experimental testing of therapeutic strategies that may be used for human SCI.
This paper references
10.1038/sj.sc.3101254
Experimental modelling of human spinal cord injury: a model that crosses the species barrier and mimics the spectrum of human cytopathology
B. Stokes (2002)
10.1089/08977150252806956
Development and characterization of a novel, graded model of clip compressive spinal cord injury in the mouse: Part 2. Quantitative neuroanatomical assessment and analysis of the relationships between axonal tracts, residual tissue, and locomotor recovery.
M. Joshi (2002)
10.1002/CNE.902550305
Quantitative analysis of cervical musculature in rats: Histochemical composition and motor pool organization. II. Deep dorsal muscles
R. Callister (1987)
10.1089/NEU.2000.17.299
Traumatic spinal cord injury produced by controlled contusion in mouse.
L. Jakeman (2000)
10.1006/exnr.1996.0098
Graded Histological and Locomotor Outcomes after Spinal Cord Contusion Using the NYU Weight-Drop Device versus Transection
D. Basso (1996)
10.1016/S0079-6123(02)37019-5
Spinal cord contusion models.
W. Young (2002)
10.1089/NEU.2006.23.36
Behavioral and histological characterization of unilateral cervical spinal cord contusion injury in rats.
J. Gensel (2006)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-02-00763.1998
Fetal Spinal Cord Transplants Support the Development of Target Reaching and Coordinated Postural Adjustments after Neonatal Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
P. S. Diener (1998)
Descending tracts of the lateral columns of the rat spinal cord: a study using the horseradish peroxidase and silver impregnation techniques.
F. Zemlan (1979)
10.1111/j.1750-3639.1995.tb00619.x
Update on the Pathophysiology and Pathology of Acute Spinal Cord Injury
C. Tator (1995)
10.1089/NEU.1992.9.123
A monitored contusion model of spinal cord injury in the rat.
J. Gruner (1992)
10.1016/0014-4886(85)90118-9
Spinal cord contusion in the rat: Behavioral analysis of functional neurologic impairment
K. Gale (1985)
Intervention strategies to enhance anatomical plasticity and recovery of function after spinal cord injury.
B. Bregman (1997)
10.1089/NEU.2006.23.437
Designing cell- and gene-based regeneration strategies to repair the injured spinal cord.
D. Pearse (2006)
10.1016/j.nbd.2005.12.019
A new model of upper cervical spinal contusion inducing a persistent unilateral diaphragmatic deficit in the adult rat
B. Baussart (2006)
10.3171/JNS.1991.75.1.0015
Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms.
C. Tator (1991)
10.1016/S0166-4328(00)00328-4
Graded unilateral cervical spinal cord injury in the rat: evaluation of forelimb recovery and histological effects
J. Soblosky (2001)
10.1016/0304-3940(90)90276-F
Cervical interneurones oligosynaptically excited from primary afferents and rhythmically active during forelimb fictive locomotion in the cat
M. Hishinuma (1990)
10.1016/0014-4886(85)90117-7
Spinal cord contusion in the rat: Production of graded, reproducible, injury groups
J. Wrathall (1985)
10.1227/00006123-198611000-00006
Models of spinal cord injury: Part 3. Dynamic load technique.
P. Black (1988)
10.1006/exnr.1997.6757
Quantitative Assessment of Respiratory Function Following Contusion Injury of the Cervical Spinal Cord
A. El-Bohy (1998)
10.3171/JNS.1971.35.6.0700
Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma.
T. Ducker (1971)
10.1089/NEU.1992.9.187
An electromechanical spinal injury technique with dynamic sensitivity.
B. Stokes (1992)
10.1016/S0006-8993(00)02778-5
Efficient testing of motor function in spinal cord injured rats
G. Metz (2000)
10.1016/0014-4886(89)90182-9
Correlative analyses of lesion development and functional status after graded spinal cord contusive injuries in the rat
L. Noble (1989)
10.1038/137559b0
Anatomy of the Rat
Eunice Chace Greene (1936)
10.1097/00005373-197511000-00011
Microcirculation of traumatized spinal cord. A correlation of microangiography and blood flow patterns in transitory and permanent paraplegia.
G. Dohrmann (1975)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-18-07045.2003
Ex Vivo Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Neurotrophin Gene Transfer to Olfactory Ensheathing Glia: Effects on Rubrospinal Tract Regeneration, Lesion Size, and Functional Recovery after Implantation in the Injured Rat Spinal Cord
M. Ruitenberg (2003)
10.1016/S0028-3908(00)00005-8
CNS plasticity and assessment of forelimb sensorimotor outcome in unilateral rat models of stroke, cortical ablation, parkinsonism and spinal cord injury
T. Schallert (2000)
10.1097/00005072-198901000-00008
Cellular Changes During Repair of a Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury in the Rat: An Electron Microscopic Study
N. West (1989)
10.1038/sj.sc.3101538
Gross quantitative measurements of spinal cord segments in human
H-Y Ko (2004)
10.1089/NEU.1991.8.91
Three-dimensional computer-assisted analysis of graded contusion lesions in the spinal cord of the rat.
J. Bresnahan (1991)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(20000410)419:3<286::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-3
Cervical motoneuron topography reflects the proximodistal organization of muscles and movements of the rat forelimb: A retrograde carbocyanine dye analysis
J. McKenna (2000)
10.1093/BRAIN/113.2.303
The corticospinal tracts in man. Course and location of fibres at different segmental levels.
P. Nathan (1990)
10.1016/0165-0270(82)90033-4
A controlled pneumatic technique for experimental spinal cord contusion
T. Anderson (1982)
10.1006/exnr.1996.6353
Treatment of the Chronically Injured Spinal Cord with Neurotrophic Factors Can Promote Axonal Regeneration from Supraspinal Neurons
Jian-Hui Ye (1997)
10.1002/CNE.902140303
Cell death and changes in the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in rubrospinal neurons following spinal cord hemisection in the adult rat
H. Goshgarian (1983)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.17-14-05560.1997
Cellular Delivery of Neurotrophin-3 Promotes Corticospinal Axonal Growth and Partial Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury
R. Grill (1997)
[Arterial vascularization of the vertebral column. Injection-corrosion-fluorescence technic].
A. Alberti (1989)
10.1007/BF01148324
Regeneration of long spinal axons in the rat
P. Richardson (1984)
10.1002/CNE.902780210
Direct projection of the corticospinal tract to the superficial laminae of the spinal cord in the rat
E. Casale (1988)
10.1016/0014-4886(92)90174-O
Recovery of function after spinal cord hemisection in newborn and adult rats: Differential effects on reflex and locomotor function
E. Kunkel-Bagden (1992)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-24-10514.1998
Regeneration of Adult Rat Corticospinal Axons Induced by Transplanted Olfactory Ensheathing Cells
Y. Li (1998)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-15-06670.2002
Schwann Cell But Not Olfactory Ensheathing Glia Transplants Improve Hindlimb Locomotor Performance in the Moderately Contused Adult Rat Thoracic Spinal Cord
T. Takami (2002)
10.1097/00004647-199810000-00006
Evaluation of a Motor Deficit after Chronic Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
F. Yonemori (1998)
10.3171/JNS.1998.88.6.1088
Enhancement of graft survival and sensorimotor behavioral recovery in rats undergoing transplantation with dopaminergic cells exposed to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.
V. Mehta (1998)
10.1007/BF00228801
Axonal projection of descending pathways responsible for eliciting forelimb stepping into the cat cervical spinal cord
M. Hishinuma (2004)
10.1002/CNE.902680207
Organization of the spinocervicothalamic pathway in the rat
G. J. Giesler (1988)
10.1089/089771503770802916
Restriction of axonal retraction and promotion of axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons after intraspinal treatment with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).
Dirk W. Dolbeare (2003)
Anatomy and embryology of the laboratory rat
R. Hebel (1986)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19991129)414:4<495::AID-CNE6>3.0.CO;2-S
Influence of the axotomy to cell body distance in rat rubrospinal and spinal motoneurons: Differential regulation of GAP‐43, tubulins, and neurofilament‐M
K. J. Fernandes (1999)
10.1016/0304-3940(93)90832-6
Differential spinal projections of subregions in the forelimb area of the motor cortex in the cat
J. Martin (1993)
10.1089/NEU.1992.9.197
Spinal cord injury produced by consistent mechanical displacement of the cord in rats: behavioral and histologic analysis.
D. Behrmann (1992)
10.1093/BRAIN/119.6.1809
Vestibulospinal, reticulospinal and descending propriospinal nerve fibres in man.
P. Nathan (1996)
10.1089/NEU.2004.21.1223
Transplantation of Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing glia after spinal cord injury: does pretreatment with methylprednisolone and interleukin-10 enhance recovery?
D. Pearse (2004)
10.1089/089771503322144572
Creatine diet supplement for spinal cord injury: influences on functional recovery and tissue sparing in rats.
A. Rabchevsky (2003)
10.1016/S0166-4328(05)80322-5
A behavioral study of the contributions of cells and fibers of passage in the red nucleus of the rat to postural righting, skilled movements, and learning
I. Whishaw (1992)
10.1097/00007632-198812000-00007
Biomechanical Analysis of Experimental Spinal Cord Injury and Functional Loss
M. Panjabi (1988)
10.1097/00007632-199601010-00025
Characterization of an Experimental Spinal Cord Injury Model Using Waveform and Morphometric Analysis
J. C. Falconer (1996)
10.1097/00019052-200206000-00021
Targeting the host inflammatory response in traumatic spinal cord injury
J. Bethea (2002)
10.1016/0014-4886(87)90299-8
A behavioral and anatomical analysis of spinal cord injury produced by a feedback-controlled impaction device
J. Bresnahan (1987)
10.1007/BF00248225
Spared-root deafferentation of a cat's hindlimb: hierarchical regulation of pathways mediating recovery of motor behavior
M. Goldberger (2004)
10.1006/exnr.2001.7679
Behavioral and Histological Outcomes Following Graded Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in the C57Bl/6 Mouse
Manhong Ma (2001)
10.1007/BF00230097
Spinal cord transplants enhance the recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury at birth
E. Kunkel-Bagden (2004)
10.1016/S0079-6123(02)37006-7
Cell death in models of spinal cord injury.
M. Beattie (2002)
10.1002/CNE.903510113
Axonal regeneration into Schwann cell‐seeded guidance channels grafted into transected adult rat spinal cord
X. M. Xu (1995)
Pathology of experimental spinal cord trauma. I. The necrotic lesion as a function of vascular injury.
Balentine Jd (1978)
Secondary injury mechanisms in acute spinal cord injury.
W. Young (1993)
10.1016/0014-4886(82)90234-5
An index of the functional condition of rat sciatic nerve based on measurements made from walking tracks
L. D. Medinaceli (1982)
10.1016/0014-4886(85)90119-0
Spinal cord contusion in the rat: Morphometric analyses of alterations in the spinal cord
L. Noble (1985)
10.1016/0736-4679(93)90002-O
Inability to validate a predictive score for infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users.
G. P. Young (1993)
10.1016/0014-4886(92)90138-G
Forelimb motor performance following cervical spinal cord contusion injury in the rat
Gregory W. Schrimsher (1992)
10.1002/cne.10259
Red nucleus projections to distinct motor neuron pools in the rat spinal cord
Martin Küchler (2002)
10.1089/CNS.1987.4.27
The post-injury responses in trauma and ischemia: secondary injury or protective mechanisms?
W. Young (1987)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-11-04370.1999
Transplants of Fibroblasts Genetically Modified to Express BDNF Promote Regeneration of Adult Rat Rubrospinal Axons and Recovery of Forelimb Function
Y. Liu (1999)
10.1016/0165-3806(86)90013-1
Somatotopic analysis of fibre and terminal distribution in the primate corticospinal pathway.
N. Dawnay (1986)
A method for the routine assessment of fore- and hindlimb grip strength of rats and mice.
Meyer Oa (1979)
10.1089/NEU.1995.12.1
A sensitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats.
D. Basso (1995)
10.1016/S0306-4522(96)00448-4
Nerve growth factor treatment prevents dendritic atrophy and promotes recovery of function after cortical injury
B. Kolb (1997)



This paper is referenced by
10.1089/neu.2008.0809
Suspension matrices for improved Schwann-cell survival after implantation into the injured rat spinal cord.
V. Patel (2010)
10.1089/NEU.2015.4232
Chronic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Impairs Ejaculatory Reflexes in Male Rats: Partial Recovery by Systemic Infusions of Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonist 7OHDPAT
KozyrevNatalie (2016)
10.1016/j.autneu.2007.04.003
Contribution of supraspinal and spinal structures to the responses of dorsal spinal cord blood flow to innocuous cutaneous brushing in rats
M. Kurosawa (2007)
10.1152/jn.00810.2010
Alterations of action potentials and the localization of Nav1.6 sodium channels in spared axons after hemisection injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.
A. Hunanyan (2011)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181aa5d85
Therapeutic hypothermia for spinal cord injury
W. Dietrich (2009)
A 3D culture model to investigate cellular responses to mechanical loading in spinal cord injury
Jenny Smith (2016)
10.3389/fneur.2014.00116
The Irvine, Beatties, and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Recovery Scale: An Assessment of Reliability and Validity
Karen-Amanda Irvine (2014)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.01.004
Chronic spinal hemisection in rats induces a progressive decline in transmission in uninjured fibers to motoneurons
V. Arvanian (2009)
10.3892/ijmm.2018.3810
Hypoxic preconditioned bone mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate spinal cord injury in rats via improved survival and migration
W. Wang (2018)
Modeling and treatment of rat cervical spinal cord injury
J. Gensel (2007)
10.1371/journal.pone.0033519
Topiramate Treatment Is Neuroprotective and Reduces Oligodendrocyte Loss after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
J. Gensel (2012)
10.1186/cc11285
Hypothermia and advanced neuromonitoring
R. Helbok (2012)
10.1089/NEU.2007.0302
The extent of myelin pathology differs following contusion and transection spinal cord injury.
Monica Siegenthaler (2007)
10.1016/B978-0-12-405195-9.00008-1
Chapter 8 – Techniques for Motor Assessment in Rodents
A. Mann (2015)
10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.03.015
A force plate measurement system to assess hindlimb weight support of spinal cord injured rats
M. Chang, (2010)
10.1016/j.pmr.2014.04.003
Hypothermia as a clinical neuroprotectant.
A. Sherman (2014)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.03.007
Phrenic motor neuron degeneration compromises phrenic axonal circuitry and diaphragm activity in a unilateral cervical contusion model of spinal cord injury
C. Nicaise (2012)
10.3727/096368912X657413
Cholinergic Neuron-Like Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Induced by Tricyclodecane-9-yl-Xanthogenate Promote Functional Recovery and Neural Protection after Spinal Cord Injury
Chun-hui Sun (2013)
10.1515/abm-2019-0019
Behavioral and histopathological studies of cervical spinal cord contusion injury in rats caused by an adapted weight-drop device
Kanyaratana Bamrungsuk (2018)
10.3390/ijms18020245
Identifying the Long-Term Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Transgenic Mouse Model
Dominic M. Maggio (2017)
10.1038/sc.2014.91
Spinal cord injury models: a review
T. Cheriyan (2014)
10.1089/neu.2010.1382
Care of rats with complete high-thoracic spinal cord injury.
J. G. Ramsey (2010)
10.1007/978-3-030-16082-1_33
Clip Impact-Compression Model
C. Tator (2019)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.06.012
Loss and spontaneous recovery of forelimb evoked potentials in both the adult rat cuneate nucleus and somatosensory cortex following contusive cervical spinal cord injury
S. M. Onifer (2007)
10.1089/neu.2014.3392
Impact depth and the interaction with impact speed affect the severity of contusion spinal cord injury in rats.
C. J. Lam (2014)
Bone marrow stromal cells for repair of the spinal cord.
R.D.S. Nandoe Tewarie (2010)
10.1089/neu.2014.3792
A Cervical Hemi-Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Model for the Investigation of Novel Therapeutics Targeting Proximal and Distal Forelimb Functional Recovery.
S. E. Mondello (2015)
Trasplante de precursores neurales derivados de médula espinal adulta en el rescate funcional de lesiones medulares crónicas
Viviana Bisbal Velasco (2015)
10.1089/neu.2008.0750
Forced exercise as a rehabilitation strategy after unilateral cervical spinal cord contusion injury.
Harra R. Sandrow-Feinberg (2009)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.09.024
Respiratory function following bilateral mid-cervical contusion injury in the adult rat
M. Lane (2012)
10.1016/j.brainres.2018.10.023
Ferroptosis inhibitor SRS 16-86 attenuates ferroptosis and promotes functional recovery in contusion spinal cord injury
Y. Zhang (2019)
10.1089/NEU.2007.0338
Longitudinal comparison of two severities of unilateral cervical spinal cord injury using magnetic resonance imaging in rats.
Mihai Georgeta (2008)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar