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MadSTORM: A Superresolution Technique For Large-scale Multiplexing At Single-molecule Accuracy

Jason Yi, Asit Manna, Valarie A. Barr, Jennifer Hong, Keir C. Neuman, Lawrence E. Samelson

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Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single-molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Using fluorescent nanodiamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single-molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM, allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies. madSTORM is used on an activated T-cell to localize 25 epitopes, 14 of which are on components of the same multimolecular T-cell receptor complex. We obtain an average localization precision of 2.6 nm, alignment error of 2.0 nm, and <0.01% cross-talk. Combining these technical advances affords the ability to move beyond obtaining superresolved structures to defining spatial relationships among constituent molecules within structures. Probing the molecular topology of complex signaling cascades and other heterogeneous networks is feasible with madSTORM.