Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Programmed Cell Death In Floral Organs: How And Why Do Flowers Die?

H. Rogers
Published 2006 · Biology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
BACKGROUND Flowers have a species-specific, limited life span with an irreversible programme of senescence, which is largely independent of environmental factors, unlike leaf senescence, which is much more closely linked with external stimuli. TIMING Life span of the whole flower is regulated for ecological and energetic reasons, but the death of individual tissues and cells within the flower is co-ordinated at many levels to ensure correct timing. Some floral cells die selectively during organ development, whereas others are retained until the whole organ dies. TRIGGERS Pollination is an important floral cell death trigger in many species, and its effects are mediated by the plant growth regulator (PGR) ethylene. In some species ethylene is a major regulator of floral senescence, but in others it plays a very minor role and the co-ordinating signals involved remain elusive. Other PGRs such as cytokinin and brassinosteroids are also important but their role is understood only in some specific systems. MECHANISMS In two floral cell types (the tapetum and the pollen-tube) there is strong evidence for apoptotic-type cell death, similar to that in animal cells. However, in petals there is stronger evidence for an autophagous type of cell death involving endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles and the vacuole. Proteases are important, and homologues to animal caspases, key regulators of animal cell death, exist in plants. However, their role is not yet clear. COMPARISON WITH OTHER ORGANS There are similarities to cell death in other plant organs, and many of the same genes are up-regulated in both leaf and petal senescence; however, there are also important differences for example in the role of PGRs. CONCLUSIONS Understanding gene regulation may help to understand cell death in floral organs better, but alone it cannot provide all the answers.
This paper references
10.1016/J.TPLANTS.2005.01.006
Many ways to exit? Cell death categories in plants.
W. G. van Doorn (2005)
10.1105/tpc.002170
Mitochondrial GFA2 Is Required for Synergid Cell Death in Arabidopsis Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.002170.
C. Christensen (2002)
10.1093/JXB/ERH264
Senescence and programmed cell death: substance or semantics?
W. G. van Doorn (2004)
10.1093/JXB/ERI094
Ethylene and flower longevity in Alstroemeria: relationship between tepal senescence, abscission and ethylene biosynthesis.
C. Wagstaff (2005)
10.1093/JXB/ERI002
Increases in DNA fragmentation and induction of a senescence-specific nuclease are delayed during corolla senescence in ethylene-insensitive (etr1-1) transgenic petunias.
Brennick J Langston (2005)
10.1038/nrm1150
Calcium: Regulation of cell death: the calcium–apoptosis link
S. Orrenius (2003)
10.1111/J.1467-7652.2004.00059.X
Gene expression patterns to define stages of post-harvest senescence in Alstroemeria petals.
E. Breeze (2004)
10.1023/A:1006198431596
Apoptosis in developing anthers and the role of ABA in this process during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.
M. Wang (1999)
10.1016/j.cub.2004.09.056
VPEγ Exhibits a Caspase-like Activity that Contributes to Defense against Pathogens
E. Rojo (2004)
CalciumRegulation of cell death: the calciumapoptosis link
B. Zhivotovsky (2003)
Strategies of flower senescence—a review Molecular and cellular aspects of plant reproduction
Ad Stead (1994)
10.1073/PNAS.96.24.14159
Programmed cell death in castor bean endosperm is associated with the accumulation and release of a cysteine endopeptidase from ricinosomes.
M. Schmid (1999)
10.1104/PP.125.2.718
Molecular and biochemical characterization of postharvest senescence in broccoli.
T. Page (2001)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.1999.00497.X
Vacuolar processing enzyme is up-regulated in the lytic vacuoles of vegetative tissues during senescence and under various stressed conditions.
T. Kinoshita (1999)
10.1023/A:1005894703444
Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence
A. ten Have (2004)
10.1016/S0925-5214(03)00048-6
Increasing flower longevity in Alstroemeria
U. Chanasut (2003)
10.1126/SCIENCE.290.5497.1717
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
D. Klionsky (2000)
10.1038/nature02540
Self-incompatibility triggers programmed cell death in Papaver pollen
S. Thomas (2004)
The PET 1CMS mitochondrial mutation in sunflower is associated with premature programmed cell death and cytochrome c release
E Breeze (2001)
Update on Plant Caspases Caspases. Regulating Death Since the Origin of Life
M. Sanmartín (2005)
Mitochondrial GFA 2 is required for synergid cell death in Arabidopsis
GorsichSW ChristensenCA (2002)
10.1104/pp.104.058552
Caspases. Regulating Death Since the Origin of Life1
M. Sanmartín (2005)
Mitochondrial GFA 2 is required for synergid cell death in Arabidopsis
JJ Cohen (2002)
10.1104/PP.126.2.707
Networking senescence-regulating pathways by using Arabidopsis enhancer trap lines.
Y. He (2001)
10.1111/J.1399-3054.1997.TB03061.X
Molecular mechanisms of ethylene regulation of gene transcription
J. Deikman (1997)
10.1104/PP.87.2.498
Ethylene-induced gene expression in carnation petals : relationship to autocatalytic ethylene production and senescence.
W. Woodson (1988)
10.1038/379779B0
Flower lifespan and disease risk
W. Doorn (1996)
10.1105/tpc.018929
Extracellular Invertase Is an Essential Component of Cytokinin-Mediated Delay of Senescence
Maria Encarnación Balibrea Lara (2004)
10.1093/PCP/PCE144
A proteinase-storing body that prepares for cell death or stresses in the epidermal cells of Arabidopsis.
Y. Hayashi (2001)
10.1007/s00425-003-0976-9
Ethylene regulates the timing of anther dehiscence in tobacco
I. Rieu (2003)
10.1038/379779A0
Flower lifespan and disease risk
J. Shykoff (1996)
Floral senescence— fundamental and applied aspects Flowering and its manipulation
Ad Stead
10.1007/s00425-003-1030-7
Male-sterility of thermosensitive genic male-sterile rice is associated with premature programmed cell death of the tapetum
S. Ku (2003)
VPE gamma exhibits a caspaselike activity that contributes to defense against pathogens
E Rojo (2004)
Apoptosis. Immunology Today
Jj Cohen (1993)
10.1017/CBO9780511752339.013
Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Plant Reproduction: Strategies of flower senescence – a review
A. Stead (1994)
10.1104/pp.113.3.863
A Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Castor Bean Endosperm Microbodies Processes the Glyoxysomal Malate Dehydrogenase Precursor Protein
C. Gietl (1997)
10.1007/s004250050553
Programme of senescence in petals and carpels of Pisum sativum L. flowers and its control by ethylene
D. Orzáez (1999)
10.1046/J.1469-8137.2003.00853.X
Programmed cell death (PCD) processes begin extremely early in Alstroemeria petal senescence
C. Wagstaff (2003)
10.1105/TPC.010116
The PET1-CMS Mitochondrial Mutation in Sunflower Is Associated with Premature Programmed Cell Death and Cytochrome c Release
J. Balk (2001)
10.1038/371788A0
How long should flowers live?
T. Ashman (1994)
10.1007/BF00020403
Up-regulation of a cysteine protease accompanies the ethylene-insensitive senescence of daylily (Hemerocallis) flowers
V. Valpuesta (2004)
10.1146/ANNUREV.ARPLANT.48.1.547
POLLINATION REGULATION OF FLOWER DEVELOPMENT.
S. O'neill (1997)
10.1093/JXB/ERG133
Defining senescence and death.
H. Thomas (2003)
10.1023/A:1026536324081
Programmed cell death in plant reproduction
Hen-Ming Wu (2004)
10.1016/S0070-2153(05)71007-3
Cell death and organ development in plants.
H. Rogers (2005)
Defining senescence anddeath
H Thomas (2003)
10.1038/35099086
Commuting the death sentence: how oocytes strive to survive
J. Tilly (2001)
10.1104/PP.119.4.1341
Cloning and characterization of TPE4A, a thiol-protease gene induced during ovary senescence and seed germination in pea.
M. Cerćos (1999)
10.1093/JXB/39.11.1605
Role of Ethylene in Senescence of Petals—Morphological and Taxonomical Relationships
E. Woltering (1988)
10.1007/BF01283002
Programmed-cell-death events during tapetum development of angiosperms
A. Papini (2005)
The PET 1-CMS Mitochondrial Mutation in Sunflower Is Associated with Premature Programmed Cell Death and Cytochrome c Release
J. Balk (2001)
10.1007/BF00024851
Enhancement of petunia and dendrobium flower senescence by jasmonic acid methyl ester is via the promotion of ethylene production
R. Porat (2004)
10.1007/BF00040839
Ethylene receptor expression is regulated during fruit ripening, flower senescence and abscission
S. Payton (2004)
10.1023/B:PLAN.0000023670.61059.1d
Gene expression during anthesis and senescence in Iris flowers
W. G. van Doorn (2004)
Floral senescence — fundamental and applied aspects
AD Stead
10.1007/978-94-017-1003-9_68
Cloning of Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes Involved in Petal Senescence of Carnation and Petunia, and Their Antisense Expression in Transgenic Plants
M. Z. Michael (1993)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.1995.8040595.X
Ethylene regulates the timing of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis
V. Grbic (1995)



This paper is referenced by
10.1042/BJ20080320
A role for actin in regulating apoptosis/programmed cell death: evidence spanning yeast, plants and animals.
V. E. Franklin-Tong (2008)
10.1007/s00299-007-0493-6
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants expressing the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele show reduced ethylene sensitivity
Mohsen Sanikhani (2007)
10.1007/s40502-016-0267-7
How and why of flower senescence: understanding from models to ornamentals
Syed Sabhi Ahmad (2016)
Characterization of Petunia x hybrida 'Mitchell Diploid' Metacaspases during Petal Senescence
Youyoun Moon (2010)
10.1080/00087114.2002.589779
Development and Programmed Cell Death in the Filament Cells of Lathyrus undulatus Boiss.
Vardar Filiz (2011)
10.1016/j.ejcb.2012.02.002
Programmed cell death in C. elegans, mammals and plants.
Christina E. N. Lord (2012)
10.1016/J.PLANTSCI.2019.110195
Identification and expression analysis of NAC transcription factors potentially involved in leaf and petal senescence in Petunia hybrida.
S. Trupkin (2019)
10.1007/s00425-009-0908-4
Evidence for programmed cell death and activation of specific caspase-like enzymes in the tomato fruit heat stress response
G. Qu (2009)
10.1111/j.1399-3054.2007.00950.x
Transglutaminase activity changes during the hypersensitive reaction, a typical defense response of tobacco NN plants to TMV.
S. Del Duca (2007)
10.14295/RBHO.V14I1.228
Cuidados na colheita e na pós-colheita das flores tropicais.
J. Lima (2008)
10.1016/J.POSTHARVBIO.2015.05.004
Advances and current challenges in understanding postharvest abiotic stresses in perishables
Romina Pedreschi (2015)
10.1111/plb.12672
Plant organ senescence - regulation by manifold pathways.
N. Wojciechowska (2018)
10.1270/jsbbs.17081
Molecular aspects of flower senescence and strategies to improve flower longevity
Kenichi Shibuya (2018)
10.5897/AJB10.1735
Isolation of an ascorbate peroxidase in Brassica napus and analysis of its specific interaction with ATP6
Zhibin Liu (2010)
10.1093/aob/mcs116
Arabinogalactan-protein secretion is associated with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity in the apple flower
J. M. Losada (2012)
10.7763/IJBBB.2011.V1.56
The Cell Death in CMS Plants
Ling Huang (2011)
10.1007/s00726-008-0131-9
Plant and animal transglutaminases: do similar functions imply similar structures?
D. Serafini-Fracassini (2008)
10.1007/s11103-012-9968-0
From models to ornamentals: how is flower senescence regulated?
H. Rogers (2012)
10.1007/s00709-010-0221-x
Megasporogenesis and programmed cell death in Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae)
A. Papini (2010)
10.1007/s00425-011-1495-8
Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts
Rajesh Kumar Tewari (2011)
10.1016/J.POSTHARVBIO.2014.02.015
Increase in DNA fragmentation and the role of ethylene and reactive oxygen species in petal senescence of Osmanthus fragrans
Jing-jing Zou (2014)
Cell Death and Defence Gene Responses in Plant-Fungal Interactions
Mattias Persson (2008)
10.1007/s00425-013-1984-z
Flower senescence: some molecular aspects
Waseem Shahri (2013)
10.1007/s10142-015-0459-7
Caspases in plants: metacaspase gene family in plant stress responses
D. Fagundes (2015)
10.1080/14620316.2019.1679042
Effect of preservatives on senescence of cut daffodil (Narcissus L.) flowers
J. Rabiza-Świder (2020)
10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.09.011
Expression and localisation of a senescence-associated KDEL-cysteine protease from Lilium longiflorum tepals.
Riccardo Battelli (2014)
10.1007/s00726-014-1865-1
Polyamines are common players in different facets of plant programmed cell death
G. Cai (2014)
10.1016/J.POSTHARVBIO.2011.01.006
Hydrogen sulfide acts as a regulator of flower senescence in plants
H. Zhang (2011)
10.1134/S1062360413020057
Role of ethylene in the control of gametophyte-sporophyte interactions in the course of the progamic phase of fertilization
L. V. Kovaleva (2013)
10.1007/978-81-322-1542-4_13
Senescence: Regulation and Signalling
Riyaz Ahmad Dar (2014)
10.7235/HORT.2014.12223
Ethylene Production and Expression of Two Ethylene Biosynthetic Genes in Senescing Flowers of Hosta ventricosa
Xiaoxian Zhu (2014)
10.1016/J.TCB.2007.06.001
Actin-related proteins in chromatin-level control of the cell cycle and developmental transitions.
R. Meagher (2007)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar