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Response Of Monkeys To Immunization With Cholera Toxoid, Toxin, And Vaccine: Reversion Of Cholera Toxoid.

R. Northrup, F. Chisari
Published 1972 · Medicine

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Rhesus monkeys have a severe, local reaction to a 50-ag subcutaneous dose of formalinized, purified cholera toxoid. The reaction was delayed, reached a maximum seven to nine days after injection, and was characterized by local edema and erythema, with prominent cellular infiltration in a later, accentuated phase of the reaction. The reaction, which was similar histologically to that produced by an injection of cholera toxin, was prevented by the injection of antitoxin with the toxoid. Also, no reaction to toxoid was seen either in monkeys passively immunized with antitoxin given intravenously or in actively immunized monkeys that had circulating endogenous antitoxin at the time of booster injection. It was concluded that reversion of cholera toxoid to toxin in vivo caused the reaction. A sustained rise in titers of antitoxin in the serum was produced by the toxoid. A marked polymorphonuclear cellular response to conventional cholera vaccine with formation of local microabscess was also observed.
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