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Gangliosides As Paramyxovirus Receptor. Structural Requirement Of Sialo-oligosaccharides In Receptors For Hemagglutinating Virus Of Japan (Sendai Virus) And Newcastle Disease Virus.
Published 1985 · Biology, Medicine
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A sensitive assay system for receptor activity of gangliosides to paramyxovirus was developed. This system involves incorporation of gangliosides into neuraminidase-treated chicken erythrocytes (asialoerythrocytes) followed by estimation of virus-mediated agglutination and hemolysis. The asialoerythrocytes coated with I-active ganglioside (Sia alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-Cer) were effectively agglutinated by hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ, Sendai virus). The hemolysis of the asialoerythrocytes mediated by HVJ was restored to the highest level by labeling the cells with gangliosides possessing lacto-series oligosaccharide chains, i.e., I-active ganglioside, N-acetylneuraminosylparagloboside (SiaPG(NeuAc)), and i-active ganglioside (Sia alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-Cer). The specific receptor activity of ganglioside GD1a possessing a gangliotetraose chain was lower than those of the gangliosides described above. Gangliosides GM3, GD3, GM1a, GD1b, SiaPG(NeuGc) showed little effect on the restoration of HVJ-mediated hemolysis. On infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the highest specific restoration of lysis was found in chicken asialoerythrocytes coated with SiaPG(NeuAc or NeuGc) and GM3(NeuAc or NeuGc), whereas those coated with I-active ganglioside, GD3, GM1a, and GD1b showed very low NDV-mediated hemolysis. The above results indicate that the determinants of receptor for HVJ contain sialylated branched and/or linear lacto-series oligosaccharides carried by I,i-active gangliosides and SiaPG(NeuAc) and sialosylgangliotetraose chain carried by GD1a. The determinants for NDV are carried by SiaPG(NeuAc or NeuGc) containing linear lacto-series oligosaccharide and GM3(NeuAc or NeuGc). The absence of detectable binding of free oligosaccharides obtained from I-active ganglioside and sialoglycoprotein GP-2 isolated from bovine erythrocyte membranes as HVJ receptor (Suzuki, Y., et al. J. Biochem. (1983) 93, 1621-1633; (1984) 95, 1193-1200) indicates that HVJ recognizes the sialooligosaccharides oriented out of the lipid bilayer in the cell membranes where the hydrophobic ceramide or peptide backbone of the receptor is integrated.