Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Prevalence Of Bacterial Vaginosis And Candida Among Postmenopausal Women In The United States.

Joscelyn N Hoffmann, H. M. You, E. Hedberg, J. Jordan, M. Mcclintock
Published 2014 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Candida among community-dwelling postmenopausal women in the United States and determine their change with age, using estimates based on Waves 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). METHOD Self-administered vaginal swabs were collected in-home from women aged 57-85 (n = 1,016) in Wave 1 and again 5 years later in Wave 2 (n = 883). Gram-stained specimens were evaluated for BV using the Nugent score as well as presence of Candida. RESULTS BV was prevalent in 23% and 38% of postmenopausal women in Waves 1 and 2 and increased with age. Women initially categorized with BV in Wave 1 were more than 10 times as likely to be categorized with BV in Wave 2, relative risk ratio (RRR) = 10.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) (4.45-24.7); p < .001, whereas women initially categorized as intermediate in Wave 1 were five times more likely to have a BV categorization, RRR = 5.0; 95% CI (2.56-9.75); p < .001. Although the presence of Candida was similar in both waves (6% and 5%), its relationship with age only became evident in Wave 2, with odds of detecting Candida decreasing by 7% with each year of age, OR = 0.93, 95% CI (0.88, 0.98); p = .010. DISCUSSION In Wave 2, the prevalence of BV was higher and increased with age while the prevalence of Candida was low and declined with age. A 5-year age increase contributed to the prevalence change across waves. Methods refinements in Wave 2 improved the detection of BV and Candida and clarified their relationship with age.
This paper references
Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract
V. Sangamithra (2013)
10.1097/00006254-200301000-00014
Prevalence of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Susceptibility to Fluconazole in Women
T. Bauters (2003)
10.1128/jcm.29.2.297-301.1991
Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation.
R. Nugent (1991)
10.1186/1471-2334-10-81
The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour
H. Verstraelen (2010)
10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02842.x
Vaginal and endocervical microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic non-pregnant females: risk factors and rates of occurrence.
C. Tibaldi (2009)
10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00175-6
META‐ANALYSIS OF ESTROGEN THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF UROGENITAL ATROPHY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: SECOND REPORT OF THE HORMONES AND UROGENITAL THERAPY COMMITTEE
L. Cardozo (1998)
10.1016/S0378-5122(97)00038-8
The relationship of bacterial vaginosis, Candida and Trichomonas infection to symptomatic vaginitis in postmenopausal women attending a vaginitis clinic.
A. Spinillo (1997)
10.1136/bmj.1.5017.517-b
Vaginitis
Stanley A. Bond (1957)
10.1136/bmj.2.6181.51
Vaginal microbial flora in normal young women.
E. Walton (1979)
10.1016/S0020-7292(09)62337-7
P847 Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and vaginal uropathogens in postmenopausal women with and without oral hormone therapy
Srinaree Kaewrudee (2009)
Vaginal swab measurement of bacterial vaginosis in Wave I of the National Social Life Health & Aging Project
S. T. Lindau (2008)
[Geriatric gynecology].
J VANRELL CRUELLS (1954)
Continuity and refinements to NSHAP Wave 2 biomeasure data collection
K. O’Doherty (2014)
10.1007/978-3-540-89656-2_84
The vaginal microbiota in menopause
Miranda A Farage (2010)
10.13181/MJI.V19I2.396
Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis among Indonesian women
Dwiana Ocviyanti (2010)
10.1097/LGT.0b013e3182241f1a
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Postmenopausal Women: The Role of Hormone Replacement Therapy
G. Fischer (2011)
[Microbiology of bacterial vaginosis].
J. Malina (1995)
10.1097/01.AOG.0000164808.23937.8E
Vaginal yeast colonization in nonpregnant women: a longitudinal study.
G. Dennerstein (2005)
Menopause and the care of the mature woman: endocrinology, consequences of estrogen deficiency, effects of hormone replacement theraphy, and treatment regimens
R. A. Lobo (2012)
10.1016/j.idc.2008.05.002
Vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis.
P. Nyirjesy (2008)
10.1093/geronb/gbu045
Survey field methods for expanded biospecimen and biomeasure collection in NSHAP Wave 2.
Katie O'Doherty (2014)
Vaginal swab measurement of candidiasis in Wave I of the National Social Life Health & Aging Project. Retrieved from http://biomarkers.uchicago.edu/pdfs/TR-Vaginal Candidiasis.pdf
S. T. Lindau (2007)
10.1086/516221
Vaginal microflora in postmenopausal women who have not received estrogen replacement therapy.
S. Hillier (1997)
Vaginal swab measurement of bacterial vaginosis in Wave I of the National Social Life Health & Aging Project. Retrieved from http://biomarkers.uchicago.edu/pdfs/TR-Bacterial Vaginosis.pdf
S. T. Lindau (2008)
10.1016/0002-9343(83)91112-9
Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations.
R. Amsel (1983)
10.1093/aje/kwn103
A longitudinal study of vaginal douching and bacterial vaginosis--a marginal structural modeling analysis.
R. Brotman (2008)
10.1001/archinte.1990.00390200111021
The limited value of symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of vaginal infections.
V. Schaaf (1990)
10.1016/J.IDC.2005.03.001
What's new in bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis?
J. Sobel (2005)
10.7326/0003-4819-96-6-926
Vaginal microbial flora: composition and influences of host physiology.
B. Larsen (1982)
10.1128/jcm.27.2.251-256.1989
Prevalence of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis.
D. Eschenbach (1989)
10.1139/W05-070
Vaginal microbial diversity among postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy.
C. Heinemann (2005)
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318074e565
The Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis in the United States, 2001–2004; Associations With Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Reproductive Health
E. Koumans (2007)
Comparison of the Methods of Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis
Udayalaxmi (2011)
10.1097/01.olq.0000190057.61633.8d
Women Find It Easy and Prefer to Collect Their Own Vaginal Swabs to Diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections
M. Chernesky (2005)
Practical Guide to Diagnosing and Treating Vaginitis.
Plourd Dm (1997)
10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.11.003
The detection and management of vaginal atrophy.
Shawna L Johnston (2004)
10.4065/mcp.2009.0413
Vulvovaginal atrophy.
M. B. Mac Bride (2010)
10.1093/geronb/gbn021
Vaginal self-swab specimen collection in a home-based survey of older women: methods and applications.
S. Lindau (2009)
The Human vagina
E. Hafez (1978)
10.1016/S0002-9378(98)80001-X
Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations.
J. Sobel (1998)
10.1128/JCM.40.6.2147-2152.2002
Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Vaginal Flora Changes in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women
S. Cauci (2002)
10.1001/JAMA.291.11.1368
Evaluation of vaginal complaints.
M. Anderson (2004)
10.1007/PL00004026
Bacterial Vaginosis Increases in Pessary Users
B. Alnaif (2000)
10.1086/338027
Interrelationships among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and the presence of yeasts.
P. Moodley (2002)
10.1097/00003081-199303000-00016
Vaginal Flora in Health and Disease
B. Larsen (1993)
10.1128/jb.7.2.159-182.1922
Notes on the Gram Stain with Description of a New Method.
V. Burke
10.1097/01.AOG.0000134783.98382.b0
Vulvovaginal Symptoms in Women With Bacterial Vaginosis
M. Klebanoff (2004)
Vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vagino
P. Nyirjesy (2008)
Continuity and refinements to NSHAP Wave 2 biomeasure data collection. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
K. O’Doherty (2014)
10.1258/ijsa.2007.007235
Reliability of self-collected versus provider-collected vaginal swabs for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
B. Kashyap (2008)
10.1086/345761
Evaluation of the bacterial vaginal flora of 20 postmenopausal women by direct (Nugent score) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) techniques.
J. Burton (2002)
10.1093/geronb/gbu031
Continuity and innovation in the data collection protocols of the second Wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.
A. Jaszczak (2014)
10.1016/S0002-9378(99)70595-8
Epidemiologic determinants of vaginal pH.
M. García-Closas (1999)
Stata Statistical Software: Release 7.
Tx Station (2001)
10.1586/eri.09.87
Bacterial vaginosis: an update on diagnosis and treatment
H. Verstraelen (2009)
10.1097/01.AOG.0000247627.84791.91
Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis: 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data
J. Allsworth (2007)
10.1097/00007435-200105000-00011
Preventing Adverse Sequelae of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Public Health Program and Research Agenda
E. Koumans (2001)
10.1056/NEJMOA067423
A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United States.
S. T. Lindau (2007)
Vaginal swab measurement of candidiasis in Wave I of the National Social Life Health & Aging Project
S. T. Lindau (2007)
SOGC JOINT COMMITTEE - CLINICAL PRACTICE GYNAECOLOGY AND UROGYNAECOLOGY
Shawna L Johnston (2004)
10.1099/00222615-11-2-209
Post-menopausal vaginitis.
C. A. Ross (1978)



This paper is referenced by
10.1097/SPV.0000000000000539
Does the Vaginal Flora Modify When a Synthetic Mesh is Used for Genital Prolapse Repair in Postmenopausal Women? A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study
Edilson Benedito de Castro (2019)
10.1097/GME.0000000000000513
Vaginal atrophy and disease susceptibility: the role of leukocytes.
David F. Archer (2015)
10.1007/978-3-030-13936-0_4
Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cancer Risk in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women
Pedro Vieira-Baptista (2019)
10.1080/01443615.2017.1308322
Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece
A. Sianou (2017)
10.30476/IJCBNM.2018.40818
The Effect of Prangos Ferulacea Vaginal Cream on Accelerating the Recovery of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Asieh Azadpour Motlagh (2018)
10.1186/s12864-018-5284-7
Vaginal microbiome variances in sample groups categorized by clinical criteria of bacterial vaginosis
Hui-Mei Chen (2018)
10.6118/jmm.2017.23.3.139
Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article
Jun Mo Kim (2017)
10.1097/QAD.0000000000001421
Associations of the vaginal microbiota with HIV infection, bacterial vaginosis, and demographic factors
C. Chehoud (2017)
10.3748/wjg.v24.i2.310
Candida accommodates non-culturable Helicobacter pylori in its vacuole - Koch’s postulates aren’t applicable
Farideh Siavoshi (2018)
10.1016/j.ajog.2015.04.032
The effect of hydroxyquinoline-based gel on pessary-associated bacterial vaginosis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
K. Meriwether (2015)
10.1016/B978-0-12-805376-8.00025-3
North American Natural Health Products and Sexual Function in Aging Adults
Ruben Maya-Luevano (2017)
10.21518/2079-701x-2019-12-142-145
Vulvovaginal candidiasis: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment
N. A. Buralkina (2019)
10.1007/978-981-13-3016-2_3
Infectious Disorders of the Lower Genital Tract
Somaye Y Zare (2019)
10.21518/2079-701X-2016-2-60-63
Клиническая эффективность флуконазола в лечении вульвовагинального кандидоза
Владимир Николаевич Серов (2016)
10.21767/2471-8521.100015
Superficial Mycoses in Menopausal Age Women: 21 years' Experience
Roberto Arenas (2016)
10.1016/j.jiac.2019.02.004
O-serogroups of multi-drug resistant cervicovaginal Escherichia coli harboring a battery of virulence genes.
Gloria Luz Paniagua-Contreras (2019)
Association between vaginal bacterial microbiota and the presence and clinical presentation of vulvovaginal candidiasis
McKenna C. Eastment (2016)
Analysis of cervicovaginal fluid metabolome and microbiome in relation to preterm birth
Emmanuel Amabebe (2016)
10.15406/MOJCSR.2015.02.00020
Metagenomics Analysis Using Next Generation Sequencing of Vaginal Samples from Community Practices in the US
William T. Budd (2015)
10.1097/GME.0000000000001515
Bacterial vaginosis diagnosis and treatment in postmenopausal women: a survey of clinician practices.
K. Mark (2020)
10.1097/GME.0000000000000787
Prevalence and correlates of vaginal estrogenization in postmenopausal women in the United States
S. Lindau (2017)
10.1177/2053369118757545
Are previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis a predictor for vaginal symptoms in breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors?
Malene R Gade (2018)
10.19100/jdvi.v1i3.27
Vaginal microbiota in menopause
Martinus Tarina (2016)
10.3748/wjg.v23.i12.2266
Helicobacter is preserved in yeast vacuoles! Does Koch's postulates confirm it?
Nader Alipour (2017)
10.1177/0956462419878333
Prevalence and predictors of bacterial vaginosis in HIV-infected women in Maharashtra, India
S Joshi (2020)
10.1016/j.gofs.2020.05.003
La vaginose bactérienne en 10 questions
Jean-Marc Bohbot (2020)
10.1016/j.ajog.2019.09.002
Bacterial Vaginosis and Surgical Site Infections.
D. Soper (2019)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar