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The Extended Substrate Recognition Profile Of The Dog Mast Cell Chymase Reveals Similarities And Differences To The Human Chymase.

Maike Gallwitz, Mattias Enoksson, M. Thorpe, Xueliang Ge, L. Hellman
Published 2010 · Biology, Medicine

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Human chymase (HC) constitutes a major granule protease in one of the two human mast cell (MC) types. The main biological role of this haematopoietic serine protease is probably not yet known, although it has been implicated in a large number of functions. Dogs, like humans, have only one chymase. This enzyme is closely related to its human homologue, and the MC subtypes of human and dog appear to be similar as well. Therefore, the functions of the dog chymase (DC) may closely reflect the functions of the HC. Moreover, dogs may serve as good models for studies of human MC functions and MC-related diseases. To reveal functional similarities and differences between the DC and HC, we have determined the extended cleavage specificity of the DC by substrate phage display. This method allows the simultaneous permutation of primed and unprimed substrate positions. The DC was found to have very similar preferences to its human counterpart for substrate positions P1, P3, P4 and P3', whereas their preferences differ at positions P2, P1' and P2'. Therefore, the HC and DC may have co-evolved with a substrate where positions P1, P3, P4 and P3' are conserved between dogs and humans, whereas positions P2 and P1' are not and P2'differs to a minor extent. The differences observed between these two enzymes suggest that results obtained from dog models cannot be directly extrapolated to human clinical settings but need to be evaluated carefully concerning potential differences in substrate preferences.
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