Novel Insights Into Host Receptors And Receptor-mediated Signaling That Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
More than 80% of land plant species benefit from symbiotic partnerships with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which assist in nutrient acquisition and enhance the ability of host plants to adapt to environmental constraints. Host-generated plasma membrane-residing receptor-like kinases and the intracellular α/β-hydrolase DWARF14-LIKE, a putative karrikin receptor, detect the presence of AM fungi before physical contact between the host and fungus. Detection induces appropriate symbiotic responses, which subsequently enables a favorable environment for AM symbiosis to occur. To prevent hyper-colonization and maintain a mutually beneficial association, the host plant precisely monitors and controls AM colonization by receptor-like kinases, such as SUPER NUMERIC NODULES. Previous studies have elucidated how host plant receptors and receptor-mediated signaling regulate AM symbiosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The identification of a rice CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 interaction partner, MYC FACTOR RECEPTOR 1, and new insights into DWARF14-LIKE receptor- and SUPER NUMERIC NODULES receptor-mediated signaling have expanded our understanding of how host plant receptors and their corresponding signals regulate AM symbiosis. This review summarizes these and other recent relevant findings. The identified receptors and/or their signaling components could be manipulated to engineer crops with improved agronomic traits by conferring the ability to precisely control AM colonization.