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Strigolactones Cross The Kingdoms: Plants, Fungi, And Bacteria In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
L. Lanfranco, V. Fiorilli, Francesco Venice, P. Bonfante
Published 2018 · Biology, Medicine
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Strigolactones (SLs) first evolved as regulators of simple developmental processes in very ancient plant lineages, and then assumed new roles to sustain the increasing biological complexity of land plants. Their versatility is also shown by the fact that during evolution they have been exploited, once released in the rhizosphere, as a communication system towards plant-interacting organisms even belonging to different kingdoms. Here, we reviewed the impact of SLs on soil microbes, paying particular attention to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). SLs induce several responses in AMF, including spore germination, hyphal branching, mitochondrial metabolism, transcriptional reprogramming, and production of chitin oligosaccharides which, in turn, stimulate early symbiotic responses in the host plant. In the specific case study of the AMF Gigaspora margarita, SLs are also perceived, directly or indirectly, by the well-characterized population of endobacteria, with an increase of bacterial divisions and the activation of specific transcriptional responses. The dynamics of SLs during AM root colonization were also surveyed. Although not essential for the establishment of this mutualistic association, SLs act as positive regulators as they are relevant to achieve the full extent of colonization. This possibly occurs through a complex crosstalk with other hormones such as auxin, abscisic acid, and gibberellins.
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