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Narrow Leaf21, Encoding Ribosomal Protein RPS3A, Controls Leaf Development In Rice.

M. Uzair, Haixin Long, S. A. Zafar, S. Patil, Yan Chun, Lu Li, Jingjing Fang, Jinfeng Zhao, Lixiang Peng, Shoujiang Yuan, Xueyong Li
Published 2021 · Medicine

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Leaf morphology influences photosynthesis, transpiration and ultimately crop yield. However, the molecular mechanism of leaf development is still not fully understood. Here, we identified and characterized the narrow leaf21 (nal21) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa), showing a significant reduction in leaf width, leaf length and plant height, and increased tiller number. Microscopic observation revealed defects in the vascular system and reduced epidermal cell size and number in the nal21 leaf blade. Map-based cloning revealed that NAL21 encodes a ribosomal small subunit protein RPS3A. Ribosome-targeting antibiotics resistance assay and ribosome profiling showed a significant reduction in the free 40S ribosome subunit in the nal21 mutant. The nal21 mutant showed aberrant auxin responses in which multiple auxin response factors (ARFs) harboring upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) were repressed at the translational level. The WUSCHEL-related homeobox 3A (OsWOX3A) gene, a key transcription factor involved in leaf blade lateral outgrowth, is also under the translational regulation by RPS3A. Transformation with modified OsARF11, OsARF16 and OsWOX3A genomic DNA lacking uORFs rescued the narrow leaf phenotype of nal21 to a better extent than transformation with their native genomic DNA, implying that RPS3A could regulate translation of ARFs and WOX3A through uORFs. Our results demonstrate that proper translational regulation of key factors involved in leaf development is essential to maintain normal leaf morphology.
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