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Docetaxel (Taxotere): A Review Of Preclinical And Clinical Experience. Part I: Preclinical Experience.
Published 1995 · Medicine
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Docetaxel is a taxoid which is currently in phase II/III clinical trials in Europe, the US and Japan. It was found to promote tubulin assembly in microtubules and to inhibit their depolymerization. In vitro, the docetaxel concentrations required to reduce murine and human cell survival by 50% ranged from 4 to 35 ng/ml and the cytotoxic effects were greater on proliferating than on non-proliferating cells. It was also found to be cytotoxic on fresh human tumor biopsies. In vivo, the drug was found to be schedule independent. A total of 13/14 murine transplantable tumors were found very sensitive to i.v. docetaxel and complete regressions of advanced stage tumors were obtained. Activity was also observed in 15/16 human tumor xenografts in nude mice at an advanced stage. In combination studies, synergism was observed in vivo with 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide and etoposide. Pharmacokinetic evaluation revealed linear pharmacokinetics in tumor-bearing mice. There was a good tumor retention with a 22 h elimination half-life. Plasma protein binding ranged from 76 to 89%. Preclinical toxicology evaluation of docetaxel included single-dose toxicity in rats, mice and dogs, 5-day toxicity in mice and dogs, intermittent-dose toxicity in rats, dogs and monkeys, genetic and reproductive toxicity, as well as investigation of the irritation and sensitization potential. The principal toxicities were hematopoietic (all species), gastrointestinal (dog, monkey) and neuromotor (mice). Dogs appeared to be the most sensitive species. The clinical entry dose of 5 mg/m2 was based on one-third of the 'toxic dose low' in dogs (15 mg/m2).