Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Genetic Influences On Outcome Following Acute Neurological Insults

Ryan J. Waters, J. Nicoll
Published 2005 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Share
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
Purpose of reviewTo examine the evidence for a genetic influence on clinical outcome after a variety of acute neurologic events. Recent findingsClinical outcome after brain injury is variable and cannot easily be predicted. It has been proposed that genetic polymorphisms may have an important role in determining outcome from a number of conditions, including acute neurologic events. Apolipoprotein E, an important mediator of cholesterol and lipid transport in the brain, is coded by a polymorphic gene (APOE). The APOE ϵ4 allele has been associated with unfavorable outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI), hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Genes involved in other pathophysiological processes, such as cytokine genes in neuroinflammation, are now being implicated. For example interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter polymorphisms are a risk factor for poor outcome after ischemic stroke, and may have an effect after traumatic brain injury. The emerging importance of a number of other gene polymorphisms is outlined in the review. SummaryThere is evidence demonstrating the ϵ4 allele of APOE predisposes to poor outcome after TBI, hemorrhagic stroke and SAH, but not ischemic stroke. The reason for this difference is unclear but it suggests there may be differences in the key mechanisms underlying the response to different types of insult. The role of other gene polymorphisms is being increasingly explored but there is still a need for larger prospective studies looking at larger panels of gene polymorphisms.
This paper references
10.1126/SCIENCE.8346443
Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families.
E. Corder (1993)
Association of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.
A. M. Saunders (1993)
Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria.
W. McGuire (1994)
10.1136/jnnp.57.4.419
Beta amyloid protein deposition in the brain after severe head injury: implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
G. Roberts (1994)
10.1038/371508A0
Variation in the TNF-α promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria
W. McGuire (1994)
10.1038/NM0295-135
Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is associated with deposition of amyloid β-protein following head injury
J. Nicoll (1995)
10.1038/NM0995-852
ApoE as a prognostic factor for post–traumatic coma
S. Sorbi (1995)
10.1212/WNL.45.3.555
Synergistic Effects of Traumatic Head Injury and Apolipoprotein-epsilon4 in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease
R. Mayeux (1995)
Apolipoprotein E e4 allele is associated with deposition of amyloid b-protein following head injury
Jar Nicoll (1995)
10.1016/S0140-6736(97)04318-3
Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after head injury
G. Teasdale (1997)
Apolipoprotein E - e 4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury
G Friedman (1997)
10.1001/JAMA.282.10.974
Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury.
Kristjan T. Ragnarsson (1999)
10.1161/01.STR.29.9.1882
The Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele and Outcome in Cerebrovascular Disease
M. McCarron (1998)
8 Rehabilitation of Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury: NIH Conses Statement Online
(1998)
10.1212/WNL.52.2.244
Apolipoprotein E-ε4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury
G. Friedman (1999)
10.1038/9649
A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria
J. Knight (1999)
10.1212/WNL.53.9.2176
Intracerebral hemorrhage outcome: Apolipoprotein E genotype, hematoma, and edema volumes
M. McCarron (1999)
Report of the working party on the management of patients with head injuries
(1999)
Apolipoprotein E-e4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury
G Friedman (1999)
Apolipoprotein E e 4 allele is associated with deposition of amyloid b - protein following head injury
Nicoll JAR (1999)
10.1016/S0197-4580(00)00097-X
The role of apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s disease, acute brain injury and cerebrovascular disease: evidence of common mechanisms and utility of animal models
K. Horsburgh (2000)
10.1093/JNEN/59.8.641
Recent Advances in Neurotrauma
D. Graham (2000)
10.1212/WNL.55.10.1536
Apolipoprotein E and functional recovery from brain injury following postacute rehabilitation
S. Lichtman (2000)
10.1034/j.1399-0004.2000.580402.x
Single nucleotide polymorphisms and the future of genetic epidemiology
N. Schork (2000)
10.1001/ARCHNEUR.57.10.1480
Prospective study of apolipoprotein E genotype and functional outcome following ischemic stroke.
M. McCarron (2000)
Prospective study of apolipoprotein E genotype and functional outcome after ischaemic stroke
MO McCarron (2000)
10.1046/j.1365-2362.2001.00851.x
Lack of association between apolipoprotein E genoype and ischaemic stroke in a Scottish population
M. Macleod (2001)
10.1097/00001756-200103260-00016
Involvement of apolipoprotein E in herpes simplex encephalitis
J. Nicoll (2001)
10.1161/HS1201.099413
A New Method for Predicting Recovery After Stroke
Kate Tilling (2001)
10.1111/J.1442-2034.2001.98-13.X
APOLIPOPROTEIN E GENOTYPE AND OUTCOME IN ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE
C. Leung (2001)
10.1161/01.STR.32.5.1181
Association of Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism With Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Preliminary Study
T. Niskakangas (2001)
10.1212/WNL.57.11.2148
APOE genotype is a major predictor of long-term progression of disability in MS
K. Becker (2001)
Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 is associated with rapid progression of multiple sclerosis.
F. Fazekas (2001)
10.1212/WNL.57.6.1097
Apolipoprotein E genotype, coagulation, and survival following acute stroke
C. Weir (2001)
10.1212/WNL.57.5.853
Apolipoprotein E ε4 is associated with rapid progression of multiple sclerosis
F. Fazekas (2001)
10.1097/00006123-200105000-00007
The Influence of Apolipoprotein E Genotype on Outcome after Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Preliminary Study
L. Dunn (2001)
A New Method for Predicting Recovery after
Sterne JAC (2001)
10.1212/WNL.58.7.1115
APOE genotype influences acquisition and recall following traumatic brain injury
F. Crawford (2002)
10.1161/HS0202.102326
Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
C. Leung (2002)
10.3171/JNS.2002.96.1.0090
Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on hematoma volume after trauma.
I. Liaquat (2002)
10.1212/WNL.58.7.1038
Apolipoprotein E &egr;4 and short-term recovery from predominantly mild brain injury
J. N. Liberman (2002)
10.1038/sj.gene.6363909
A promoter polymorphism in the gene encoding interleukin-12 p40 (IL12B) is associated with mortality from cerebral malaria and with reduced nitric oxide production
G. Morahan (2002)
An interesting multi-center study of multiple SNPs, including one recently identified Apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
Ch Leung (2002)
10.1016/S0049-3848(03)00376-1
The (-174) G/C polymorphism in the interleukin-6 gene is associated with the severity of acute cerebrovascular events.
S. Greisenegger (2003)
10.1016/S0021-9150(02)00041-2
Myeloperoxidase polymorphisms in brain infarction. Association with infarct size and functional outcome.
A. Hoy (2003)
10.1136/jnnp.74.8.1047
Long term neuropsychological outcome after head injury: relation to APOE genotype
K. Millar (2003)
10.1016/S0003-9993(03)00043-1
Association between apolipoprotein E4 and rehabilitation outcome in hospitalized ischemic stroke patients.
I. Treger (2003)
10.1007/s00701-003-0069-3
Association between apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome of traumatic brain injury
M.-F. Chiang (2003)
10.1136/jnnp.74.7.971
Apolipoprotein E genotypes and clinical outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome
J. Pritchard (2003)
10.1016/S0090-3019(03)00323-9
Apolipoprotein e ϵ4 and the risk of unfavorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Jie Tang (2003)
10.1001/ARCHNEUR.60.6.818
Increased risk of late posttraumatic seizures associated with inheritance of APOE epsilon4 allele.
R. Diaz-Arrastia (2003)
10.3171/JNS.2003.98.2.0302
Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and outcome after closed traumatic brain injury: influence of ethnic and regional differences.
N. Nathoo (2003)
10.1097/01.CCM.0000055370.66389.59
Correlation between transcranial interleukin-6 gradient and outcome in patients with acute brain injury
E. Miñambres (2003)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000078033.81925.80
Genetic variation of the APOE promoter and outcome after head injury
C. Lendon (2003)
10.1034/j.1600-0404.2003.01365.x
Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on in‐hospital mortality following intracerebral haemorrhage
M. McCarron (2003)
Apolipoprotein E e 4 and the risk of unfavourable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Y Zhao (2003)
Apolipoprotein E e4 and the risk of unfavourable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
J Tang (2003)
Association between apolipoprotein E 4 and rehabilitation outcome in hospitalised ischaemic stroke patients
I Treger (2003)
Association between apolipoprotein E4 and rehabilitation outcome in hospitalised ischaemic stroke patients
I Treger (2003)
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 4 G Allele in the 4 G / 5 G Promoter Polymorphism Increases the Occurrence of Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
M. Vergouwen (2004)
10.1161/01.STR.0000128707.48644.7e
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 4G Allele in the 4G/5G Promoter Polymorphism Increases the Occurrence of Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
M. Vergouwen (2004)
10.1097/01.WCB.0000110540.96047.C7
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms Predict Susceptibility to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Cerebral Vasospasm
V. G. Khurana (2004)
10.1034/j.1600-0404.2003.00206.x
Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and neuropsychological outcome following subarachnoid haemorrhage
P. G. Morris (2004)
10.1161/01.STR.0000140740.19421.fe
Proinflammatory Genetic Profiles in Subjects With History of Ischemic Stroke
A. Flex (2004)
10.1212/WNL.63.12.2460
APOE influences on neuropsychological function after mild head injury: Within-person comparisons
A. Collie (2004)
Genetic influences on outcome after neurologic insults Waters and Nicoll 109
A study examining the association of apolipoprotein E genotype and long-term outcome measures
This paper expands the association of apolipoprotein E and outcome after TBI in a Chinese patient population
The first paper to consider APOE promoter polymorphisms as a possible influence on outcome
A study of a unique black African cohort and the influence of e4 on outcome after TBI
A recent study demonstrating an association between IL-6 genotype and outcome after ischemic stroke
Recent Advances in Neuro - trauma
DI Graham
An interesting study that measured serial arterial and jugular IL-6 levels and attempted to correlate these, as well as IL-6 genotypes
An interesting paper that investigates the role of the fibrinolytic system in outcome after SAH
A recent study that uses a large panel of neuropsychological tests to assess outcome after TBI
An interesting study that measured serial arterial and jugular IL-6 levels and attempted to correlate these, as well as IL-6 genotypes, with outcome
A study in which patients outcome was assessed by a comprehensive panel of neuropsychological methods 14 to 23 months after SAH
An interesting multi-center study of multiple SNPs, including one recently identified
Proinflammatory genetic profiles in subjects with history of ischaemic
E Gaetani



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135046
Genetic underpinnings of cerebral edema in acute brain injury: an opportunity for pathway discovery
Elayna Kirsch (2020)
10.1007/s11102-019-00953-z
The role of autoimmunity in pituitary dysfunction due to traumatic brain injury
A. De Bellis (2019)
10.1017/9781139696432.009
Why Outcomes Vary
J. Victoroff (2019)
10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.08.017
Association of IL6ST (gp130) Polymorphism with Functional Outcome Following Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
N. E. El Husseini (2018)
10.1371/journal.pone.0172709
A functional variant in the 3ˈ-UTR of VEGF predicts the 90-day outcome of ischemic stroke in Chinese patients
J. Zhao (2017)
10.1186/s12885-017-3416-0
Cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with brain tumours of the posterior fossa
M. Wibroe (2017)
Global cognition, executive function, and metacognition in a stroke population
M. A. Banna (2016)
10.3390/ijms17040497
Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review
B. Lucke-Wold (2016)
Relationships among APOE Genotypes, Inflammatory Markers, and Risk Factors among African Americans with Ischemic Stroke
T. Wadas (2015)
10.4103/2230-8210.167561
Pituitary and/or hypothalamic dysfunction following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: Current perspectives
Z. Javed (2015)
10.1089/neu.2014.3368
A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study assessing white matter fiber tracts after sports-related concussion.
M. Murugavel (2014)
10.5535/arm.2013.37.3.311
Effect of the Presence of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism on the Recovery in Patients With Acute Subcortical Stroke
W. Kim (2013)
Predicting outcome in traumatic brain injury. Towards better prognostic models
B. Jacobs (2013)
Predictors of long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury
Trandur Ulfarsson (2013)
10.1089/neu.2012.2792
Cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome after traumatic brain injury.
Ryan J. Waters (2013)
10.1007/978-2-8178-0443-9_8
Altération neuropsychologique d’origine vasculaire
M. Planton (2013)
10.1682/JRRD.2012.04.0061
Prior housing conditions and sleep loss may affect recovery from brain injury in rats: a pilot study.
R. Riechers (2013)
10.1007/s00701-012-1292-6
The release of S-100B and NSE in severe traumatic head injury is associated with APOE ε4
Zandra Olivecrona (2012)
10.1503/cmaj.111045
Predicting outcome after childhood brain injury
R. Forsyth (2012)
The origins of individual differences in skilled reaching for food in rats
Gita Gholamrezaei (2011)
Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in stroke rehabilitation patients: : Frequency, risk factors, and relation to outcome
Jørgen Wagle (2011)
10.21236/ada602330
Imaging Effects of Neurotrophic Factor Genes on Brain Plasticity and Repair in Multiple Sclerosis
H. Wishart (2011)
10.3109/02699052.2011.556107
IL-6 polymorphism associated with fatal outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury
André Luiz Dalla Libera (2011)
10.1097/NEN.0b013e318212f185
Dietary Cholesterol and Its Effect on Tau Protein: A Study in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient and P301L Human Tau Mice
F. Glöckner (2011)
10.3171/2011.8.FOCUS11182
Sports-related chronic repetitive head trauma as a cause of pituitary dysfunction.
J. Dubourg (2011)
10.1007/978-1-4419-0345-7_13
Functional MRI of Multiple Sclerosis
H. Wishart (2011)
10.1016/B978-1-4160-5316-3.00338-5
Critical Care Management of Traumatic Brain Injury
C. Robertson (2011)
10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70325-2
Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders
P. Verghese (2011)
10.1002/gps.2425
Cognitive impairment and the role of the ApoE ε4‐allele after stroke—a 13 months follow‐up study
Jørgen Wagle (2009)
10.1016/j.mehy.2010.02.023
Neuroinflammation resulting from covert brain invasion by common viruses – A potential role in local and global neurodegeneration
J. Majde (2010)
10.1007/s00701-010-0737-z
Secondary insults following traumatic brain injury enhance complement activation in the human brain and release of the tissue damage marker S100B
B. Bellander (2010)
10.1159/000223230
Association between ApoE ε4 and Cognitive Impairment after Stroke
Jørgen Wagle (2009)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar