Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Benign Essential Blepharospasm: Risk Factors With Reference To Hemifacial Spasm

T. A. Hall, G. McGwin, K. Searcey, A. Xie, S. Hupp, C. Owsley, L. Kline
Published 2005 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Background: To identify risk factors associated with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) with reference to hemifacial spasm (HFS). Persons with BEB and HFS experience similar physical symptoms, yet the two disorders have different etiologies. Methods: Patients with BEB (n = 159) or HFS (n = 91) were identified from two large neuro-ophthalmology clinics. Demographic, medical, behavioral, and psychological characteristics were obtained from chart review and a telephonic survey questionnaire. Results: The average age of BEB and HFS was 66 years. Most patients in both groups were retired, white, and female. BEB patients were more than two times as likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder than HFS patients (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.72).There was no difference between the two groups regarding demographics, smoking, a family history of dystonia, Parkinson disease, Bell palsy, Tourette disorder, obsessive compulsive symptoms, history of head trauma, alcohol use, or caffeine consumption. Conclusions: As compared to HFS, BEB was significantly more often associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Given the similarity of other clinical features of these two disorders, it is reasonable to conclude that anxiety is a cause not a consequence of BEB. Contrary to previous studies, BEB was not associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, head trauma, Parkinson disease, Bell palsy, Tourette disorder, or lack of smoking.
This paper references
10.1212/WNL.33.9.1237
Blepharospasm associated with brainstem lesions
J. Jankovic (1983)
10.1212/WNL.47.1.43
Relative absence of psychopathology in benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
C. E. Scheidt (1996)
The Epidemiological Study of Dystonia in Europe (ESDE) Collaborative Group A prevalence study of primary dystonia in eight European countries
T. Warner (2000)
10.1007/s004150070094
A prevalence study of primary dystonia in eight European countries
T. Warner (2000)
10.1159/000116969
Genetic contribution to idiopathic adult-onset blepharospasm and cranial-cervical dystonia.
G. Defazio (1993)
10.1097/00002341-199809000-00002
Blepharospasm: Past, Present, and Future
R. Anderson (1998)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3422-03.2004
Dopamine Release in Response to a Psychological Stress in Humans and Its Relationship to Early Life Maternal Care: A Positron Emission Tomography Study Using [11C]Raclopride
J. Pruessner (2004)
10.1001/ARCHPSYC.59.2.115
Revised prevalence estimates of mental disorders in the United States: using a clinical significance criterion to reconcile 2 surveys' estimates.
W. Narrow (2002)
The prevalence and incidence of cervical dystonia in south-western Finland.Mov Disord
HM Erjanti (1996)
10.1111/j.0065-1591.2000.acp29-04.x
Do anxiety and depression have a common pathophysiological mechanism?
P. Boyer (2000)
10.1002/mds.1275
Epidemiology of primary blepharospasm
G. Defazio (2002)
10.1176/AJP.155.4.555
Higher prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with blepharospasm than in patients with hemifacial spasm.
A. Broocks (1998)
Ophthalmic causes of blepharospasm
DP Salorio (1988)
10.1001/JAMA.288.7.841
Impact of cataract surgery on motor vehicle crash involvement by older adults.
C. Owsley (2002)
10.1007/s002210000585
Aging of the trigeminal blink system
K. R. Peshori (2000)
10.1034/j.1600-0404.2001.00109.x
Quality of life in patients with blepharospasm
O. Tucha (2001)
10.1212/WNL.46.5.1213
Blepharospasm: report of a workshop.
M. Hallett (1996)
10.1002/ANA.410290315
A genetic study of idiopathic focal dystonias
H. M. Waddy (1991)
10.1002/MDS.870100406
Prevalence of focal dystonias in the western area of Tottori Prefecture in Japan
K. Nakashima (1995)
10.1212/WNL.34.4.418
Pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm
V. Nielsen (1984)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000027361.73814.0E
Blepharospasm: recent advances.
M. Hallett (2002)
10.1097/00005053-199202000-00011
Blepharospasm and Obsessive‐Compulsive Disorder
K. Bihari (1992)
10.1016/S0002-9394(03)00218-6
Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women.
D. Schaumberg (2003)
10.1007/s00415-002-0733-1
The impact of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia on health-related quality of life and depression
J. Mueller (2002)
Classification of dystonia.
S. Fahn (1998)
10.1016/S0022-3999(99)00105-1
Psychiatric disorders in patients with blepharospasm - a reactive pattern?
T. Wenzel (2000)
10.1093/BRAIN/117.6.1457
Abnormal eye movements in blepharospasm and involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition. Clinical and pathophysiological considerations.
M. Aramideh (1994)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.BRAIN.A101863
Memory-contingent saccades and the substantia nigra postulate for essential blepharospasm.
J. Hotson (1991)
The prevalence and incidence of cervical dystonia in south-western Finland
H M Erjanti (1996)
10.1037/1040-3590.3.2.196
Derivation and validation of the Hamburg Obsession/Compulsion Inventory—Short Form (HOCI—S): First results.
R. Klepsch (1991)
10.1016/S0306-4530(99)00035-9
The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders
C. Heim (2000)
10.1212/WNL.56.11.1579
Prevalence of primary blepharospasm in a community of Puglia region, Southern Italy
G. Defazio (2001)
Clinical features, differential diagnosis and pathogenesis of blepharospasm and cranial-facial dystonia
J. Jankovic (1985)
10.1136/jnnp.51.6.767
Blepharospasm: a review of 264 patients.
F. Grandas (1988)
10.1038/eye.1988.79
The significance of ophthalmological symptoms in idiopathic blepharospasm
J. S. Elsron (1988)
10.1007/BF00867421
A genetic study of idiopathic focal dystonias
M. Stojanovic (2004)
10.1177/089198879400700107
Reliability and Validity of the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire Administered by Telephone
W. Roccaforte (1994)
10.1002/mds.10065
Dry eye, blinking, and blepharospasm
C. Evinger (2002)
10.1001/ARCHOPHT.124.1.116
Health-related quality of life and psychosocial characteristics of patients with benign essential blepharospasm.
T. A. Hall (2006)
10.1212/wnl.53.8.1871
Sex-related influences on the frequency and age of onset of primary dystonia
T. Warner (1999)
Prevalence of idiopathic focal dystonia in the province of Segovia
AP Sempere (1994)
Blepharospasm and obsessivecompulsive disorder
K Bihari (1992)
10.1152/JN.1997.77.5.2842
Animal model explains the origins of the cranial dystonia benign essential blepharospasm.
E. J. Schicatano (1997)
10.1016/S0002-9394(14)71688-5
Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly.
O. Schein (1997)
10.1111/J.1532-5415.1975.TB00927.X
A Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire for the Assessment of Organic Brain Deficit in Elderly Patients †
E. Pfeiffer (1975)
10.1136/jnnp.64.1.25
Possible risk factors for primary adult onset dystonia: a case-control investigation by the Italian Movement Disorders Study Group
G. Defazio (1998)



This paper is referenced by
10.1371/journal.pone.0209558
Epidemiology of benign essential blepharospasm: A nationwide population-based retrospective study in Taiwan
Yng Sun (2018)
10.5772/INTECHOPEN.78360
Non-Motor Symptoms in Patients with Primary Dystonia
N. Semerdjieva (2018)
10.1016/B978-1-4160-0016-7.50264-2
Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm
E. Bradley (2008)
10.1136/jnnp.2006.103713
Head trauma in primary cranial dystonias: a multicentre case–control study
D. Martino (2007)
10.1007/s00415-014-7244-8
Psychiatric disorders in idiopathic-isolated focal dystonia
Alexander C. Lehn (2014)
10.1159/ISBN.978-3-8055-9801-9
Psychiatry of Parkinson's Disease
Klaus P. Ebmeier (2012)
10.1159/000331659
Drug-Induced Parkinsonism and Abnormal Involuntary Movements
Craig William Ritchie (2012)
10.1136/jnnp-2011-301752
Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive–compulsive disorder: beyond the obsessive–compulsive–tic phenotype. A systematic review
L. A. Fibbe (2012)
10.1080/01658107.2017.1409770
Blepharospasm in Japan: A Clinical Observational Study From a Large Referral Hospital in Tokyo
M. Wakakura (2018)
10.7916/D8QN65GQ
The Environmental Epidemiology of Primary Dystonia
G. Defazio (2013)
10.1016/j.pain.2011.06.006
Chronic (neuropathic) corneal pain and blepharospasm: Five case reports
D. Borsook (2011)
10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01492
Sexual Well-Being in Patients with Blepharospasm, Spasmodic Torticollis, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Pilot Study
P. Perozzo (2016)
10.1093/arclin/acx095
Neuropsychological and Neuropsychiatric Features of Idiopathic and DYT1 Dystonia and the Impact of Medical and Surgical treatment
M. Jahanshahi (2017)
Avaliação da prevalência de glaucoma em pacientes com blefaroespasmo essencial
S. Matayoshi (2008)
10.31363/2313-7053-2020-2-47-56
Клинические варианты аффективных, диссомнических и двигательных проявлений краниоцервикальной дистонии (обзор литературы)
З. Г. Хаятова (2020)
10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.05.016
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.
L. Fontenelle (2011)
10.1371/journal.pone.0150804
Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS
C. Shen (2016)
10.1016/bs.irn.2017.05.003
Nonmotor Symptoms in Dystonia.
Julie Ann Kristy L Torres (2017)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar