Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Acquired Muscle Weakness In The Surgical Intensive Care Unit: Nosology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, And Prevention

Hassan N Farhan, Ingrid Moreno-Duarte, N. Latronico, R. Zafonte, M. Eikermann
Published 2016 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Muscle weakness is common in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU). Low muscle mass at ICU admission is a significant predictor of adverse outcomes. The consequences of ICU-acquired muscle weakness depend on the underlying mechanism. Temporary drug-induced weakness when properly managed may not affect outcome. Severe perioperative acquired weakness that is associated with adverse outcomes (prolonged mechanical ventilation, increases in ICU length of stay, and mortality) occurs with persistent (time frame: days) activation of protein degradation pathways, decreases in the drive to the skeletal muscle, and impaired muscular homeostasis. ICU-acquired muscle weakness can be prevented by early treatment of the underlying disease, goal-directed therapy, restrictive use of immobilizing medications, optimal nutrition, activating ventilatory modes, early rehabilitation, and preventive drug therapy. In this article, the authors review the nosology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of ICU-acquired weakness in surgical ICU patients.
This paper references
10.1016/J.CYTO.2006.05.001
Leukemia inhibitory factor restores the hypertrophic response to increased loading in the LIF(-/-) mouse.
E. Spangenburg (2006)
10.1177/014860710302700174
Nutrition support in the critical care setting: current practice in canadian ICUs--opportunities for improvement?
D. Heyland (2003)
Fan E: Early physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients with acute respiratory failure: A quality improvement project
D M Needham (2010)
Van den Berghe G: Insufficient activation of autophagy allows cellular damage to accumulate in critically ill patients
I Vanhorebeek (2011)
10.1186/CC1027
Airway pressure release ventilation increases cardiac performance in patients with acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome
L. Kaplan (2001)
10.1161/01.RES.84.6.695
Angiotensin II induces interleukin-6 transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells through pleiotropic activation of nuclear factor-kappa B transcription factors.
Y. Han (1999)
10.1097/00132586-197802000-00003
Ventilatory pattern, intrapleural pressure, and cardiac output.
J. Downs (1977)
10.3181/00379727-205-43695
Interleukin-6 Induces Skeletal Muscle Protein Breakdown in Rats
M. Goodman (1994)
10.1016/J.CMET.2007.11.001
FoxO3 controls autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo.
C. Mammucari (2007)
10.1007/s00134-007-0772-2
Neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness: a systematic review
R. Stevens (2007)
TM: Sarcopenia =/= dynapenia
BC Clark (2008)
Aging and Body Composition Study: Antihypertensive medications and differences in muscle mass in older persons: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study
Di Bari (2004)
10.1056/NEJM199802053380602
Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
M. Amato (1998)
10.1097/ACO.0b013e3283445382
The complex interplay between delirium, sedation, and early mobility during critical illness: applications in the trauma unit
A. Banerjee (2011)
10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.12.022
Early Mobilization in Critically Ill Patients: Patients' Mobilization Level Depends on Health Care Provider's Profession
J. Garzon-Serrano (2011)
10.1210/jc.2013-2820
A randomized study on the effect of vitamin D₃ supplementation on skeletal muscle morphology and vitamin D receptor concentration in older women.
L. Ceglia (2013)
10.1212/01.WNL.0000158442.08857.FC
Insulin therapy protects the central and peripheral nervous system of intensive care patients
G. Van den Berghe (2005)
10.1001/JAMA.2013.278481
Acute skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness.
Z. Puthucheary (2013)
10.1016/S0140-6736(96)91074-0
Critical illness myopathy and neuropathy
N. Latronico (1996)
10.2522/ptj.20130335
Hip Abductor Strength Reliability and Association With Physical Function After Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cross-Sectional Study
Ali H Alnahdi (2014)
10.1056/NEJMoa1404380
Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock.
S. Peake (2014)
10.1210/jc.2012-3592
Improving the vitamin D status of vitamin D deficient adults is associated with improved mitochondrial oxidative function in skeletal muscle.
Akash Sinha (2013)
Oudemans-van Straaten HM: Early high protein intake is associated with low mortality and energy overfeeding with high mortality in non-septic mechanically ventilated critically ill patients
P J Weijs (2014)
10.1378/chest.09-1737
Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis.
P. Marik (2010)
10.1136/jnnp.2007.142430
Long-term outcome in patients with critical illness myopathy or neuropathy: the Italian multicentre CRIMYNE study
B. Guarneri (2008)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb38182.x
FIBER TYPES AND METABOLIC POTENTIALS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES IN SEDENTARY MAN AND ENDURANCE RUNNERS *
B. Saltin (1977)
Critical illness and mechanical ventilation: effects on the diaphragm.
A. Jubran (2006)
10.1113/jphysiol.2008.160333
Immobilization induces anabolic resistance in human myofibrillar protein synthesis with low and high dose amino acid infusion
E. Glover (2008)
10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.08.014
Muscle strength measurement in the intensive care unit: not everything that can be counted counts.
Karen Waak (2013)
10.1016/J.CMET.2007.11.004
FoxO3 coordinately activates protein degradation by the autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways in atrophying muscle cells.
Jinghui Zhao (2007)
10.1164/AJRCCM.164.2.2011093
Efficacy of low tidal volume ventilation in patients with different clinical risk factors for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
M. Eisner (2001)
10.1097/00003246-200112000-00005
Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: A systematic review
P. Marik (2001)
10.1097/00007632-200405010-00020
Early versus Late Enteral Feeding in Patients with Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study
M. Dvorak (2004)
10.1073/pnas.0709144105
Long-term enhancement of skeletal muscle mass and strength by single gene administration of myostatin inhibitors
Amanda M. Haidet (2008)
10.1042/BJ3600143
Identification of cathepsin L as a differentially expressed message associated with skeletal muscle wasting.
C. Deval (2001)
10.1038/nrneurol.2012.183
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy
T. Gofton (2012)
Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers bind etomidate in vitro and reverse etomidate anesthesia in rats dose-dependently
D Diaz-Gil (2014)
Zaloga GP: Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: A systematic review
PE Marik (2001)
Van den Berghe G: Acute outcomes and 1-year mortality of intensive care unit-acquired weakness. A cohort study and propensity-matched analysis
G Hermans (2014)
A single ascendingdose study of muscle regulator ACE031 in healthy volunteers
KM Attie (2013)
10.1177/0148607109335234
Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.).
S. Mcclave (2009)
PGC1α and mitochondrial metabolism—Emerging concepts and relevance in ageing and neurodegenerative disorders
S Austin (2012)
10.1097/01.TA.0000123267.39011.9F
Relationship of early hyperglycemia to mortality in trauma patients.
A. Laird (2004)
10.1152/ajpcell.00069.2010
Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and proteolysis in skeletal muscle repair after unloading.
Tina Andrianjafiniony (2010)
10.1097/ALN.0b013e318288834f
Postoperative Respiratory Muscle Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Preventive Strategies
N. Sasaki (2013)
10.1016/S0165-0270(97)02251-6
Measurement of human muscle fatigue
N. Vøllestad (1997)
10.1097/01.TA.0000145826.84657.38
Early enteral nutrition does not decrease hypermetabolism associated with burn injury.
M. Peck (2004)
10.1097/01.CCM.0000245783.28478.AD
Rocuronium exacerbates mechanical ventilation–induced diaphragm dysfunction in rats
D. Testelmans (2006)
Canadian Critical Care Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee: Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients
DK Heyland (2003)
10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60658-9
Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial
William D Schweickert (2009)
10.1016/0034-5687(94)00119-K
Alterations in diaphragm EMG activity during opiate-induced respiratory depression.
C. Campbell (1995)
10.1152/japplphysiol.00110.2009
Effects of 3 days unloading on molecular regulators of muscle size in humans.
T. Gustafsson (2010)
10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829373fe
Muscle Weakness Predicts Pharyngeal Dysfunction and Symptomatic Aspiration in Long-term Ventilated Patients
H. Mirzakhani (2013)
10.1136/qhc.13.3.203
Effect of a scoring system and protocol for sedation on duration of patients’ need for ventilator support in a surgical intensive care unit*
G. Brattebø (2002)
10.1056/NEJMoa1401602
A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock.
D. Yealy (2014)
10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61351-8
Optimisation of energy provision with supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial
C. Heidegger (2013)
10.1164/AJRCCM.161.5.9902018
How is mechanical ventilation employed in the intensive care unit? An international utilization review.
A. Esteban (2000)
10.1007/s00134-014-3224-9
Dynamics of myosin degradation in intensive care unit-acquired weakness during severe critical illness
T. Wollersheim (2014)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b6f727
Measurement of muscle strength in the intensive care unit
E. Bittner (2009)
10.1152/ajprenal.00341.2012
Melanocortin antagonism ameliorates muscle wasting and inflammation in chronic kidney disease.
Wai W. Cheung (2012)
10.1016/S0304-3835(98)00216-X
Different cytokines modulate ubiquitin gene expression in rat skeletal muscle.
M. Llovera (1998)
10.1002/jcb.24469
CaMKII activity is reduced in skeletal muscle during sepsis
Zaira Aversa (2013)
10.1097/01.CCM.0000279204.24648.44
Feeding critically ill patients: What is the optimal amount of energy?
R. Stapleton (2007)
10.1001/jama.300.8.933
Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: a meta-analysis.
R. Wiener (2008)
Changes in quality of life after liver transplantation among adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Liver Transplantation Database (LTD).
S. Belle (1997)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1065874
Identification of Ubiquitin Ligases Required for Skeletal Muscle Atrophy
S. Bodine (2001)
10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142828
The temporal responses of protein synthesis, gene expression and cell signalling in human quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon to disuse
M. D. de Boer (2007)
10.1007/s00134-011-2334-x
Time course of organ failure in patients with septic shock treated with hydrocortisone: results of the Corticus study
R. Moreno (2011)
10.1210/jc.2010-2563
Insufficient activation of autophagy allows cellular damage to accumulate in critically ill patients.
I. Vanhorebeek (2011)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182376e6d
The surgical intensive care unit optimal mobility score predicts mortality and length of stay*
G. Kasotakis (2012)
10.1097/CCM.0000000000000210
Prospective Study of Vitamin D Status at Initiation of Care in Critically Ill Surgical Patients and Risk of 90-Day Mortality*
S. Quraishi (2014)
10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283427243
Sedation, delirium and mechanical ventilation: the ‘ABCDE’ approach
A. Morandi (2011)
10.1126/scisignal.2002038
Gαi2 Signaling Promotes Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy, Myoblast Differentiation, and Muscle Regeneration
G. Minetti (2011)
10.1186/cc12901
Skeletal muscle predicts ventilator-free days, ICU-free days, and mortality in elderly ICU patients
L. Moisey (2013)
10.1177/0148607115621863
Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.).
S. Mcclave (2016)
10.1056/NEJMoa1102662
Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults.
M. Casaer (2011)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00993.2004
Mechanical ventilation induces alterations of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the diaphragm.
K. Deruisseau (2005)
Health, Aging and Body Composition Study: Antihypertensive medications and differences in muscle mass in older persons: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study
M Di Bari (2004)
CALORIES Trial Investigators: Trial of the route of early nutritional support in critically ill adults
SE Harvey (2014)
Early versus delayed feeding with an immuneenhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries
SJ Lewis (2000)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827e83af
Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock 2012
R. Dellinger (2013)
10.1111/aas.12479
The demise of early goal‐directed therapy for severe sepsis and septic shock
P. Marik (2015)
10.1046/J.1365-2346.1994.00178.X
The influence of controlled mandatory ventilation (CMV), intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure (BIPAP) on duration of intubation and consumption of analgesics and sedatives. A prospective analysis in 596 patients following adult cardiac surgery.
J. Rathgeber (1997)
10.4187/respcare.01931
Early Physical Rehabilitation in the ICU and Ventilator Liberation
P. Mendez-Tellez (2012)
10.1113/jphysiol.1975.sp010818
Increased extrajunctional acetylcholine sensitivity produced by chronic acetylcholine sensitivity produced by chronic post‐synaptic neuromuscular blockade.
D. K. Berg (1975)
10.1007/s00134-013-3132-4
What is new in prevention of muscle weakness in critically ill patients?
M. Eikermann (2013)
10.1186/cc13052
Clinical predictive value of manual muscle strength testing during critical illness: an observational cohort study
B. Connolly (2013)
10.1186/cc5671
Simplified electrophysiological evaluation of peripheral nerves in critically ill patients: the Italian multi-centre CRIMYNE study
N. Latronico (2007)
Management of refractory hypoxemia in ARDS.
R. Kacmarek (2013)
10.1242/dmm.010389
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy
P. Bonaldo (2013)
10.1164/rccm.201106-0975OC
Termination of respiratory events with and without cortical arousal in obstructive sleep apnea.
A. Jordan (2011)
10.1097/TA.0b013e318181b8f6
An analgesia-delirium-sedation protocol for critically ill trauma patients reduces ventilator days and hospital length of stay.
B. Robinson (2008)
10.1007/s00134-014-3282-z
Introducing simplified electrophysiological test of peripheral nerves and muscles in the ICU: choosing wisely
N. Latronico (2014)
10.1046/J.1365-201X.1996.192000.X
High-and low-frequency fatigue revisited.
D. Jones (1996)
10.2522/ptj.20110403
Global Muscle Strength But Not Grip Strength Predicts Mortality and Length of Stay in a General Population in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit
J. Lee (2012)
Copyright © 2015, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Anesthesiology 2016
WD Schweickert (2009)
10.1016/j.cell.2007.12.018
Autophagy in the Pathogenesis of Disease
B. Levine (2008)
10.1007/s00134-009-1645-7
Usefulness of a clinical diagnosis of ICU-acquired paresis to predict outcome in patients with SIRS and acute respiratory failure
A. Brunello (2009)
10.1007/s001340050757
Acquired neuromuscular disorders in critically ill patients: a systematic review
B. de Jonghe (1998)
10.1097/01.CCM.0000153521.41848.7E
Effect of critical illness polyneuropathy on the withdrawal from mechanical ventilation and the length of stay in septic patients*
J. Garnacho-Montero (2005)
10.1056/NEJMOA010307
Early Goal-Directed Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
E. Ivers (2001)
10.1001/JAMA.288.22.2859
Paresis acquired in the intensive care unit: a prospective multicenter study.
B. de Jonghe (2002)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182711972
The Comparison of Spontaneous Breathing and Muscle Paralysis in Two Different Severities of Experimental Lung Injury*
T. Yoshida (2013)
10.1111/apha.12190
Substantial skeletal muscle loss occurs during only 5 days of disuse
B. T. Wall (2014)
10.1007/s13539-011-0039-1
The orally active melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist BL-6020/979: a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer cachexia
R. Dallmann (2011)
10.1097/00005768-199805000-00005
Influence of mode and carbohydrate on the cytokine response to heavy exertion.
D. Nieman (1998)
10.1113/jphysiol.2014.286740
The role of alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and PGC‐1α over‐expression in fast muscle atrophy following hindlimb unloading
Jessica Cannavino (2015)
10.1002/ANA.410400415
Acute myopathy of intensive care: Clinical, electromyographic, and pathological aspects
D. Lacomis (1996)
10.1056/NEJMoa070447
Rapid disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers in mechanically ventilated humans.
S. Levine (2008)
10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7889
Functional trajectories among older persons before and after critical illness.
L. Ferrante (2015)
10.1097/00002727-200002000-00009
Sedation of the mechanically ventilated patient.
M. Yagan (2000)
Clinical Practice guideline: The diagnosis of intensive care unitacquired weakness in adults
E Fan (2014)
Investigators; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group: Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol: A randomized controlled trial
S Mehta (2012)
10.1056/NEJMoa1005372
Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome.
L. Papazian (2010)
10.1001/jama.2013.5124
Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients with short-term relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition: a randomized controlled trial.
G. Doig (2013)
10.1016/0304-3940(90)90728-R
Involvement of coerulospinal noradrenergic pathway in fentanyl-induced muscular rigidity in rats
P. Lui (1990)
10.1152/physiolgenomics.00123.2012
Effects of corticosteroids in the development of limb muscle weakness in a porcine intensive care unit model.
S. Aare (2013)
10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.004
Glycemic control in non-diabetic critically ill patients.
F. Farrokhi (2011)
10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52265.x
Antihypertensive Medications and Differences in Muscle Mass in Older Persons: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study
M. Di Bari (2004)
10.1093/AJCN/74.4.534
Enteral compared with parenteral nutrition: a meta-analysis.
C. Braunschweig (2001)
10.1007/s40140-014-0073-6
Residual Paralysis: Does it Influence Outcome After Ambulatory Surgery?
Hassan N Farhan (2014)
10.1002/MUS.880151112
Loss and renewal of thick myofilaments in glucocorticoid‐treated rat soleus after denervation and reinnervation
R. Massa (1992)
10.1152/japplphysiol.00952.2011
Modulation of autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways during ultra-endurance running.
C. Jamart (2012)
10.1113/jphysiol.2014.279406
CrossTalk opposing view: The dominant mechanism causing disuse muscle atrophy is proteolysis
M. Reid (2014)
10.1093/bja/aen094
Opioids and the control of respiration.
K. Pattinson (2008)
10.1097/00000542-200203000-00015
Impact of Shorter-acting Neuromuscular Blocking Agents on Fast-track Recovery of the Cardiac Surgical Patient
G. Murphy (2002)
10.1056/NEJMc1414479
Trial of the route of early nutritional support in critically ill adults.
E. Cereda (2015)
10.1007/s00134-012-2769-8
Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock, 2012
R. Dellinger (2012)
10.1097/00132586-200002000-00011
Effect of mechanical ventilation on inflammatory mediators in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
V. M. Ranieri (1999)
Midwest Critical Care Consortium: Acquired weakness, handgrip strength, and mortality in critically ill patients
NA Ali (2008)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b027e9
Presence and severity of intensive care unit-acquired paresis at time of awakening are associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital mortality*
T. Sharshar (2009)
10.1007/s00134-003-2146-8
Ventilation with biphasic positive airway pressure in experimental lung injury
D. Henzler (2003)
10.1097/00003246-198311000-00015
Hypophosphatemia as a reversible cause of refractory ventilatory failure.
S. Varsano (1983)
10.1177/0148607114566276
Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels at Initiation of Care and Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Surgical Patients.
S. Quraishi (2016)
10.1002/EJI.1830230824
Cachexia and the acute‐phase protein response in inflammation are regulated by interleukin‐6
H. S. Oldenburg (1993)
10.1164/rccm.201306-1174OC
Determinants of procedural pain intensity in the intensive care unit. The Europain® study.
K. Puntillo (2014)
10.1038/23060
IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1
A. Musarò (1999)
10.1164/rccm.201312-2257OC
Acute outcomes and 1-year mortality of intensive care unit-acquired weakness. A cohort study and propensity-matched analysis.
G. Hermans (2014)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00180.2006
Analysis of human skeletal muscle after 48 h immobilization reveals alterations in mRNA and protein for extracellular matrix components.
M. Urso (2006)
10.1164/AJRCCM.164.1.2001078
Long-term effects of spontaneous breathing during ventilatory support in patients with acute lung injury.
C. Putensen (2001)
10.1111/j.1468-1331.1997.tb00317.x
The neurological examination in the assessment of polyneuropathy in mechanically ventilated patients
F. Leijten (1997)
10.1056/NEJMOA040933
Myostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a child.
M. Schuelke (2004)
10.12688/f1000research.3933.3
Validation of the peroneal nerve test to diagnose critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in the intensive care unit: the multicentre Italian CRIMYNE-2 diagnostic accuracy study
N. Latronico (2014)
ARISE Investigators; ANZICS Clinical Trials
SL Peake (2014)
Study Investigators: Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients
Nice-Sugar (2009)
10.4161/auto.6.2.11137
Autophagy inhibition induces atrophy and myopathy in adult skeletal muscles
E. Masiero (2010)
10.1056/NEJMoa0810625
Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients.
S. Finfer (2009)
10.1113/jphysiol.1975.sp011047
Effects of chronic treatment with various neuromuscular blocking agents on the number and distribution of acetylcholine receptors in the rat diaphragm.
C. Chang (1975)
10.1097/00075198-200208000-00010
Long-term outcomes after critical illness
M. Herridge (2002)
10.1164/rccm.201002-0234OC
Mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm disuse in humans triggers autophagy.
S. Hussain (2010)
10.1007/s00134-009-1620-3
The relationship between nutritional intake and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: results of an international multicenter observational study
C. Alberda (2009)
Effect of a protectiveventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome
MB Amato (1998)
Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group: Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock
E Rivers (2001)
10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00395-2
Gravitational unloading effects on muscle fiber size, phenotype and myonuclear number.
Y. Ohira (2002)
10.1152/japplphysiol.01183.2010
Acute antibody-directed myostatin inhibition attenuates disuse muscle atrophy and weakness in mice.
K. Murphy (2011)
10.1378/CHEST.127.3.886
Importance of a comprehensive geriatric assessment in prediction of complications following thoracic surgery in elderly patients.
T. Fukuse (2005)
10.1016/j.cger.2011.03.008
Current and future pharmacologic treatment of sarcopenia.
Y. Rolland (2011)
10.1097/CCM.0000000000000030
Assessment of Limb Muscle Strength in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review
G. Vanpee (2014)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182711de2
ICU Early Physical Rehabilitation Programs: Financial Modeling of Cost Savings*
Robert K. Lord (2013)
Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance?
C. Fischer (2006)
10.1016/j.jss.2012.11.043
Comparison of melatonin and oxytocin in the prevention of critical illness polyneuropathy in rats with experimentally induced sepsis.
O. Erbaş (2013)
10.1002/mus.23539
A single ascending‐dose study of muscle regulator ace‐031 in healthy volunteers
K. Attie (2013)
Clinical approach to the weak patient in the intensive care unit.
U. Dhand (2006)
10.1016/j.biocel.2013.05.039
Regulation of muscle protein synthesis and the effects of catabolic states.
B. Gordon (2013)
10.1177/0148607100024003145
Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries.
G. Minard (2000)
10.1113/jphysiol.2012.240267
The time course of the adaptations of human muscle proteome to bed rest and the underlying mechanisms
L. Brocca (2012)
10.1111/febs.12338
Interleukin‐6 myokine signaling in skeletal muscle: a double‐edged sword?
P. Muñoz-Cánoves (2013)
10.1016/j.cmet.2009.10.008
Autophagy is required to maintain muscle mass.
E. Masiero (2009)
10.1097/01.SA.0000441042.75441.36
Early Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients With Short-term Relative Contraindications to Early Enteral Nutrition: A Randomized Controlled Trial
G. Doig (2014)
Groupe de Réflexion et d’Etude des Neuromyopathies en Réanimation: Paresis acquired in the intensive care unit: A prospective multicenter study
B De Jonghe (2002)
delivery in mechanically ventilated patients
RD Stapleton (2005)
10.1097/00000441-200405000-00025
Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.
Ye-chong Liu (2004)
10.1091/MBC.E03-08-0585
p38 MAPK-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity is required for skeletal muscle differentiation: role of interleukin-6.
Bernat Baeza-Raja (2004)
10.1186/s13054-014-0701-z
Early high protein intake is associated with low mortality and energy overfeeding with high mortality in non-septic mechanically ventilated critically ill patients
P. Weijs (2014)
10.1097/01.TA.0000135158.42242.B1
The impact of hyperglycemia on patients with severe brain injury.
Elan Jeremitsky (2005)
10.1016/J.CLNU.2003.09.013
Is early enteral nutrition a risk factor for gastric intolerance and pneumonia?
L. Kompan (2004)
10.1152/japplphysiol.01399.2010
LIF is a contraction-induced myokine stimulating human myocyte proliferation.
C. Broholm (2011)
10.1136/jnnp.47.11.1223
Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients.
C. Bolton (1984)
10.1097/00003246-199707000-00028
Dose response, recovery, and cost of doxacurium as a continuous infusion in neurosurgical intensive care unit patients.
R. Prielipp (1997)
10.1097/TA.0b013e31814b2c4d
Prevalence and risk factors for development of delirium in surgical and trauma intensive care unit patients.
P. Pandharipande (2008)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b6e974
Physical inactivity and muscle weakness in the critically ill
Melissa A. Chambers (2009)
10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e75961
A randomized prospective trial of airway pressure release ventilation and low tidal volume ventilation in adult trauma patients with acute respiratory failure.
R. Maxwell (2010)
10.1164/rccm.200910-1487OC
Increased proteolysis, myosin depletion, and atrophic AKT-FOXO signaling in human diaphragm disuse.
S. Levine (2011)
10.1056/NEJMra1304623
Nutrition in the acute phase of critical illness.
M. Casaer (2014)
10.1007/s00421-009-1151-1
Proteolysis activation and proteome alterations in murine skeletal muscle submitted to 1 week of hindlimb suspension
R. Ferreira (2009)
10.1172/JCI22324
Muscle-specific expression of IGF-1 blocks angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle wasting.
Yao-Hua Song (2005)
10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03142.x
A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Vitamin D on Muscle Strength and Mobility in Older Women with Vitamin D Insufficiency
K. Zhu (2010)
10.2522/ptj.20130048
Alterations in Respiratory and Limb Muscle Strength and Size in Patients With Sepsis Who Are Mechanically Ventilated
C. Baldwin (2013)
10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70183-8
Effect of tolerating macronutrient deficit on the development of intensive-care unit acquired weakness: a subanalysis of the EPaNIC trial.
G. Hermans (2013)
10.1159/000087451
Angiotensin II Stimulates Matrix Metalloproteinase Secretion in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Nuclear Factor-κB and Activator Protein 1 in a Redox-Sensitive Manner
M. Browatzki (2005)
10.1164/rccm.201401-0158OC
Risk factors for physical impairment after acute lung injury in a national, multicenter study.
D. Needham (2014)
10.1378/CHEST.130.4_MEETINGABSTRACTS.101S-C
Effects of early enteral feeding on the outcome of critically ill mechanically ventilated medical patients.
Vasken Artinian (2006)
10.1177/0884533611427916
Refeeding syndrome or refeeding hypophosphatemia: a systematic review of cases.
A. Skipper (2012)
10.1056/NEJM200005043421801
Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
R. Brower (2000)
10.1007/s13539-014-0157-7
Muscle wasting: an overview of recent developments in basic research
S. Palus (2014)
10.1056/nejmoa051693
Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome.
K. Steinberg (2006)
10.1056/NEJMoa1409860
Trial of the route of early nutritional support in critically ill adults.
S. Harvey (2014)
10.1007/BF01836960
Comparison of pain, motion, and edema after modified radical mastectomy vs. local excision with axillary dissection and radiation
L. Gerber (2005)
Neuromuscular manifestations of diarrhea related hypokalemia.
A. Chhabra (1995)
10.1161/01.ATV.19.7.1623
Angiotensin induces inflammatory activation of human vascular smooth muscle cells.
R. Kranzhoefer (1999)
10.1164/rccm.201206-0982OC
Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the human diaphragm during mechanical ventilation.
M. Picard (2012)
10.1186/cc11880
Effects of the neurological wake-up test on clinical examination, intracranial pressure, brain metabolism and brain tissue oxygenation in severely brain-injured patients
R. Helbok (2012)
10.1097/ACO.0b013e328331d545
Control of perioperative muscle strength during ambulatory surgery
Paul H. Alfille (2009)
10.1001/JAMA.2012.13872
Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol: a randomized controlled trial.
S. Mehta (2012)
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182742e75
Postoperative Residual Neuromuscular Blockade Is Associated with Impaired Clinical Recovery
G. Murphy (2013)
10.1038/nature10758
Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis
C. He (2012)
10.1016/S0761-8425(07)91744-1
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network
E. L'her (2007)
Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited
A Esteban (2016)
Acquired Muscle Weakness in the Surgical ICU
10.1056/NEJMOA051693
Efficacy and Safety of Corticosteroids for Persistent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Lung (2009)
pathways during ultra-endurance running Modulation of autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome
L. Féasson (2012)
10.1152/ajpregu.1998.275.6.R1983
Sepsis in mice stimulates muscle proteolysis in the absence of IL-6.
A. Williams (1998)
10.1056/NEJMoa070716
Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis.
F. Brunkhorst (2008)
10.1007/s001340000586
Early signs of critical illness polyneuropathy in ICU patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis
A. Tennilä (2000)
10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.07.014
The Impact of Comorbidities and Complications on Burn Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes
Jeffrey C. Schneider (2013)
10.1097/TA.0b013e318270d73d
Predictors of transfer from rehabilitation to acute care in burn injuries
J. Schneider (2012)
10.1177/0148607103027005355
Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients.
D. Heyland (2003)
10.1378/chest.10-0466
Reducing iatrogenic risks: ICU-acquired delirium and weakness--crossing the quality chasm.
E. Vasilevskis (2010)
10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70178-8
Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy: a major cause of muscle weakness and paralysis
N. Latronico (2011)
10.1016/j.apmr.2010.01.002
Early physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients with acute respiratory failure: a quality improvement project.
D. Needham (2010)
10.1002/mus.24175
Long‐term recovery In critical illness myopathy is complete, contrary to polyneuropathy
S. Koch (2014)
Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers bind ketamine in vitro and reverse ketamine anesthesia and associated side-effects in rats
F Haerter (2013)
Kress JP: Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: A randomised controlled trial
W D Schweickert (2009)
10.1097/CCM.0000000000000149
Early Mobilization of Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A 1-Day Point-Prevalence Study in Germany*
P. Nydahl (2014)
10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08024-8
Relation between use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and muscle strength and physical function in older women: an observational study
G. Onder (2002)
10.1164/RCCM.200202-088OC
Mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy is associated with oxidative injury and increased proteolytic activity.
R. Shanely (2002)
10.1503/cmaj.090206
Intensive insulin therapy and mortality among critically ill patients: a meta-analysis including NICE-SUGAR study data
D. Griesdale (2009)
10.1016/J.NUT.2004.11.014
Variation in enteral nutrition delivery in mechanically ventilated patients.
T. Rice (2005)
The impact of malnutrition on morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay in trauma patients.
M. Goiburu (2006)
10.1213/01.ANE.0000057602.27031.C8
Recovery of Neuromuscular Function After Cardiac Surgery: Pancuronium Versus Rocuronium
G. Murphy (2003)
10.1097/SLA.0000000000001546
Can Sarcopenia Quantified by Ultrasound of the Rectus Femoris Muscle Predict Adverse Outcome of Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients as well as Frailty? A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study
N. Mueller (2016)
10.1093/ajcn/47.2.352
The link between nutritional status and clinical outcome: can nutritional intervention modify it?
D. Dempsey (1988)
10.1164/AJRCCM.149.6.8004312
Long-term effects of two different ventilatory modes on oxygenation in acute lung injury. Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation and volume-controlled inverse ratio ventilation.
M. Sydow (1994)
10.1006/BBRC.1995.1168
Muscle undergoes atrophy in association with increase of lysosomal cathepsin activity in interleukin-6 transgenic mouse.
T. Tsujinaka (1995)
10.1210/JC.2006-0651
Atrophy and impaired muscle protein synthesis during prolonged inactivity and stress.
D. Paddon-Jones (2006)
10.1016/S1072-7515(98)00154-9
Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis.
G. Singh (1998)
10.1016/j.amjsurg.2013.03.001
Resource-efficient mobilization programs in the intensive care unit: who stands to win?
J. Mah (2013)
10.1113/jphysiol.2010.188508
Prolonged space flight‐induced alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle fibres
R. Fitts (2010)
10.1159/000235874
Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency Increases Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Institutionalized Older People Independently of Regular Physical Activity: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial
L. D. F. Moreira-Pfrimer (2009)
10.1007/s00134-009-1585-2
A prospective randomised multi-centre controlled trial on tight glucose control by intensive insulin therapy in adult intensive care units: the Glucontrol study
J. Preiser (2009)
10.1002/mus.21244
Inhibition of myostatin with emphasis on follistatin as a therapy for muscle disease
L. Rodino-Klapac (2009)
10.1097/MCO.0b013e328341ed93
Refeeding in the ICU: an adult and pediatric problem
Matthew C. Byrnes (2011)
10.1056/NEJM200005183422002
Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation
J. Ress (2000)
10.1097/00003246-200101000-00002
A prospective survey of nutritional support practices in intensive care unit patients: What is prescribed? What is delivered?
B. de Jonghe (2001)
10.1213/ane.0b013e31816d1268
Residual Neuromuscular Blockade and Critical Respiratory Events in the Postanesthesia Care Unit
G. Murphy (2008)
10.1007/s00421-011-2287-3
Autophagy-related and autophagy-regulatory genes are induced in human muscle after ultraendurance exercise
C. Jamart (2011)
10.1097/CCM.0000000000000518
Low-Dose Corticosteroid Treatment in Septic Shock: A Propensity-Matching Study*
D. Funk (2014)
10.4037/AJCC1994.3.2.116
Dimensions of procedural pain and its analgesic management in critically ill surgical patients.
K. Puntillo (1994)
10.1677/JOE.1.06837
Modifying muscle mass - the endocrine perspective.
A. Solomon (2006)
10.1503/cmaj.061339
Effect of perindopril on physical function in elderly people with functional impairment: a randomized controlled trial
D. Sumukadas (2007)
10.1111/j.0001-5172.2004.0326.x
Predictive value of mechanomyography and accelerometry for pulmonary function in partially paralyzed volunteers
M. Eikermann (2004)
10.1097/ALN.0000000000000126
Therapeutic range of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation.
M. Eikermann (2014)
HM: Early high protein intake is associated with low mortality and energy overfeeding with high mortality in non-septic mechanically ventilated critically ill patients
PJ Weijs (2014)
ACURASYS Study Investigators: Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome
L Papazian (2010)
Increased proteolysis, myosin depletion, and atrophic Copyright © 2015, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc
S Levine (2016)
10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70148-6
Muscle weakness and nutrition in critical illness: matching nutrient supply and use.
N. Latronico (2013)
10.1210/en.2011-2068
Early parenteral nutrition evokes a phenotype of autophagy deficiency in liver and skeletal muscle of critically ill rabbits.
S. Derde (2012)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181cc4b53
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness
R. D. Griffiths (2010)
Normal inspiratory muscle strength is restored more rapidly after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
M. L. Da Costa (1995)
10.1681/ASN.2006010083
Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in normal and disease states.
S. Lecker (2006)
10.1002/jhm.2152
Association of impaired functional status at hospital discharge and subsequent rehospitalization.
E. Hoyer (2014)
10.1186/cc13767
Calorie intake and patient outcomes in severe acute kidney injury: findings from The Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study trial
R. Bellomo (2014)
10.1038/368339A0
Impaired immune and acute-phase responses in interleukin-6-deficient mice
M. Kopf (1994)
10.1210/ENDO.142.4.8082
Angiotensin II induces skeletal muscle wasting through enhanced protein degradation and down-regulates autocrine insulin-like growth factor I.
M. Brink (2001)
10.2174/1874321801105010023
Respiratory Effects of Opioids in Perioperative Medicine
C. Y. Koo (2011)
10.1097/ALN.0000000000000201
Sepsis Is Associated with a Preferential Diaphragmatic Atrophy: A Critically Ill Patient Study Using Tridimensional Computed Tomography
B. Jung (2014)
10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003262
Surgical Intensive Care Unit Optimal Mobilisation Score (SOMS) trial: a protocol for an international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial focused on goal-directed early mobilisation of surgical ICU patients
M. Meyer (2013)
10.1097/01.TA.0000047945.20863.A2
Early functional treatment versus early immobilization in tension of the musculotendinous unit after Achilles rupture repair: a prospective, randomized, clinical study.
J. Kangas (2003)
10.1164/AJRCCM.159.4.9806077
Spontaneous breathing during ventilatory support improves ventilation-perfusion distributions in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
C. Putensen (1999)
Recommendations for anesthesia and perioperative management of patients with neuromuscular disorders.
F. Racca (2013)
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182342840
Intraoperative Acceleromyography Monitoring Reduces Symptoms of Muscle Weakness and Improves Quality of Recovery in the Early Postoperative Period
G. Murphy (2011)
10.1172/JCI115767
Evidence for the involvement of interleukin 6 in experimental cancer cachexia.
G. Strassmann (1992)
10.1002/mus.20304
Neuromuscular manifestations of critical illness
C. Bolton (2005)
Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup: Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock
RP Dellinger (2012)
10.1093/AJCN/51.6.1035
Very early nutrition supplementation in burned patients.
A. Chiarelli (1990)
10.1016/S1053-0770(98)90325-1
Pleural bupivacaine placement for optimal postthoracotomy pulmonary function: a prospective, randomized study.
J. Richardson (1998)
10.1164/rccm.201411-2011ST
An official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice guideline: the diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in adults.
E. Fan (2014)
10.1186/cc13729
Skeletal muscle mass and mortality - but what about functional outcome?
Z. Puthucheary (2014)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00394.2005
Effects of inactivity on fiber size and myonuclear number in rat soleus muscle.
H. Zhong (2005)
10.1002/jmri.22864
A longitudinal MRI study of muscle atrophy during lower leg immobilization following ankle fracture
M. Psatha (2012)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.01026.2004
IL-6-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.
F. Haddad (2005)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e318246bb5d
Cross-talk between the calpain and caspase-3 proteolytic systems in the diaphragm during prolonged mechanical ventilation
W. B. Nelson (2012)
[Neuromuscular complications of sepsis].
B. Karlsen (2001)
10.1056/NEJM199208203270804
Persistent paralysis in critically ill patients after long-term administration of vecuronium.
V. Segredo (1992)
10.1378/CHEST.129.2.225
Translating research to clinical practice: a 1-year experience with implementing early goal-directed therapy for septic shock in the emergency department.
S. Trzeciak (2006)
Respiratory mechanical properties during fentanyl and alfentanil anaesthesia.
P. R. Ruiz Neto (1992)
10.1164/rccm.200712-1829OC
Acquired weakness, handgrip strength, and mortality in critically ill patients.
N. Ali (2008)
10.1002/LT.500030201
Changes in Quality of Life After Liver Transplantation Among Adults
S. Belle (1997)
10.1016/s0021-9258(19)38923-9
Role of different proteolytic systems in the degradation of muscle proteins during denervation atrophy.
K. Furuno (1990)
10.1007/s00134-005-0029-x
Muscle force and fatigue in patients with sepsis and multiorgan failure
M. Eikermann (2005)
10.1345/aph.1A321
Propofol Infusion Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients
Tep M. Kang (2002)
10.7326/0003-4819-154-4-201102150-00008
Intensive Insulin Therapy in Hospitalized Patients: A Systematic Review
D. Kansagara (2011)
10.1152/japplphysiol.00925.2012
Calpain and caspase-3 play required roles in immobilization-induced limb muscle atrophy.
E. Talbert (2013)
10.1097/SLA.0000000000000628
Functional compromise reflected by sarcopenia, frailty, and nutritional depletion predicts adverse postoperative outcome after colorectal cancer surgery.
K. Reisinger (2015)
10.1093/GERONA/56.3.M146
Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype.
L. Fried (2001)
10.1186/cc11361
Early versus late parenteral nutrition in ICU patients: cost analysis of the EPaNIC trial
S. Vanderheyden (2012)
10.1186/cc8987
Electrical muscle stimulation prevents critical illness polyneuromyopathy: a randomized parallel intervention trial
C. Routsi (2010)
10.1186/cc11841
Mechanisms underlying ICU muscle wasting and effects of passive mechanical loading
M. Llano-Diez (2012)
Sarcopenia or muscle modifications in neurologic diseases: a lexical or patophysiological difference?
S. Carda (2013)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a240d5
ICU Early Mobilization: From Recommendation to Implementation at Three Medical Centers
H. Engel (2013)
10.1016/j.biocel.2013.04.023
Protein breakdown in muscle wasting: Role of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome☆☆☆
M. Sandri (2013)
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182715b80
Residual Neuromuscular Blockade Affects Postoperative Pulmonary Function
G. V. Kumar (2012)
10.1186/cc10005
Manual muscle strength testing of critically ill patients: feasibility and interobserver agreement
C. Hough (2011)
10.1186/2110-5820-2-43
A fresh look at paralytics in the critically ill: real promise and real concern
David Price (2012)
10.1096/fj.03-1228fje
Disuse atrophy and exercise rehabilitation in humans profoundly affects the expression of genes associated with the regulation of skeletal muscle mass
S. Jones (2004)
10.1001/JAMA.289.13.1634-B
Paresis following mechanical ventilation.
S. Weber-Carstens (2003)
EA: Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries
G Minard (2000)
10.1172/JCI118398
Interleukin 6 receptor antibody inhibits muscle atrophy and modulates proteolytic systems in interleukin 6 transgenic mice.
T. Tsujinaka (1996)
10.1097/CCM.0000000000000040
Physical Complications in Acute Lung Injury Survivors: A Two-Year Longitudinal Prospective Study
E. Fan (2014)
10.1378/chest.11-1638
Diaphragm muscle thinning in patients who are mechanically ventilated.
H. Grosu (2012)
10.1136/bmj.323.7316.773
Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials
S. Lewis (2001)
10.1042/CS0890431
Interleukin-6 induces proteolysis by activating intracellular proteases (cathepsins B and L, proteasome) in C2C12 myotubes.
C. Ebisui (1995)
10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60105-1
Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial
T. Girard (2008)
10.1186/s13054-015-0737-8
Metabolic and nutritional support of critically ill patients: consensus and controversies
J. Preiser (2015)
NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators: Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients
S Finfer (2009)
Van den Berghe G: Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults
M P Casaer (2011)
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181a38937
Early exercise in critically ill patients enhances short-term functional recovery*
C. Burtin (2009)
10.1097/00005373-198610000-00003
Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma--a prospective, randomized study.
E. Moore (1986)
10.1046/j.1365-2044.1998.00569.x
Position and shape of the diaphragm: implications for atelectasis formation
A. Reber (1998)
10.1016/j.biocel.2013.06.011
Disuse-induced muscle wasting.
S. Bodine (2013)
10.1016/J.BIOCEL.2005.02.029
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
D. Béchet (2005)
10.1210/EN.2005-0362
Myostatin inhibits myogenesis and promotes adipogenesis in C3H 10T(1/2) mesenchymal multipotent cells.
J. Artaza (2005)
10.1371/journal.pone.0006518
Limb Immobilization Induces a Coordinate Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial and Other Metabolic Pathways in Men and Women
A. Abadi (2009)
10.1136/thx.2006.072488
Influence of wakefulness on pharyngeal airway muscle activity
Yu-Lun Lo (2007)



This paper is referenced by
10.1371/journal.pone.0223185
Early mobilization of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis
L. Zhang (2019)
Early Mobilization of Intensive Care Unit ((ICU) Patients
K. Koukourikos (2020)
10.1016/B978-0-444-63599-0.00041-7
Prognosis of neurologic complications in critical illness.
M. van der Jagt (2017)
10.1016/S1280-4703(17)86782-7
Farmacología de los curares
J. Haberer (2017)
10.1097/ACO.0000000000000465
Prevention of respiratory complications of the surgical patient: actionable plan for continued process improvement
K. J. Ruscic (2017)
10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31637-3
Early, goal-directed mobilisation in the surgical intensive care unit: a randomised controlled trial
S. J. Schaller (2016)
10.1186/s12871-015-0165-y
Codifying healthcare – big data and the issue of misclassification
K. Ladha (2015)
Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction in Lung Transplant Patients
D. Rozenberg (2017)
10.4102/SAJP.V74I1.427
Changes in biopsychosocial outcomes for a mixed cohort of ICU survivors.
Johannes van Aartsen (2018)
10.1097/ALN.0000000000000875
Intensive Care Unit-acquired Muscle Weakness: An Ounce of Prevention Is Worth a Pound of Cure.
Angela Lipshutz (2016)
10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.10.033
Lumbar skeletal muscle index derived from routine computed tomography exams predict adverse post‐extubation outcomes in critically ill patients☆
G. Fuchs (2018)
10.1186/s13054-017-1758-2
Electrical impedance tomography for predicting failure of spontaneous breathing trials in patients with prolonged weaning
J. Bickenbach (2017)
10.1186/s12891-020-03740-1
A prospective study of the muscle strength and reaction time of the quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscles in patients with plantar fasciitis
Jin Seong Lee (2020)
10.3389/fmed.2020.559789
Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: A Review of Recent Progress With a Look Toward the Future
Wenkang Wang (2020)
10.4102/sajp.v74i1.450
Impact of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment (CPAx) tool on clinical outcomes of surgical and trauma patients in an intensive care unit: An experimental study
M. Whelan (2018)
10.4102/sajp.v74i1.427
Changes in biopsychosocial outcomes for a mixed cohort of ICU survivors
Johannes van Aartsen (2018)
10.1513/AnnalsATS.201705-410OC
International Practice Variation in Weaning Critically Ill Adults from Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
K. Burns (2018)
10.1097/NCM.0000000000000192
Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: Implications for Case Management
Nina R. Harvey (2017)
Post Intensive Care Syndrome
S. Smith (2020)
10.3390/jcm9124029
Simplified Diagnosis of Critical Illness Polyneuropathy in Patients with Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
C. Jung (2020)
10.1002/ams2.415
Post‐intensive care syndrome: its pathophysiology, prevention, and future directions
S. Inoue (2019)
Updates in optimizing analgesia/sedation strategy for mechanically ventilated patients
B. Wang (2017)
10.4037/ajcc2018911
Early Rehabilitation and In‐Hospital Mortality in Intensive Care Patients With Community‐Acquired Pneumonia
Y. Sawada (2018)
10.1017/cjn.2018.390
Muscular Ultrasound, Syndecan-1 and Procalcitonin Serum Levels to Assess Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness
R. Patejdl (2019)
10.1111/nicc.12455
The effect of early mobilization in critically ill patients: A meta-analysis.
Kui Zang (2019)
10.1589/jpts.30.1193
Rehabilitation and early mobilization in the critical patient: systematic review
Patricia Arias-Fernández (2018)
10.1111/aas.12775
Differences between prolonged weaning patients from medical and surgical intensive care units
J. Bickenbach (2016)
10.1186/s13613-017-0326-x
Ultrasound assessment of rectus femoris and anterior tibialis muscles in young trauma patients
Maria Giuseppina Annetta (2017)
10.1016/j.bja.2019.08.011
Redefining the perioperative stress response: a narrative review.
V. Manou-Stathopoulou (2019)
10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.12.020
The German Validation Study of the Surgical Intensive Care Unit Optimal Mobility Score.
S. J. Schaller (2016)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar