Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

The Spindle And Extrafusal Innervation Of A Frog Muscle

E. G. Gray
Published 1957 · Biology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
In the frog muscle, ext. long. dig. IV, there are two or three spindle systems. Each consists of a bundle of intrafusal muscle fibres with two, three or four discrete encapsulated sensory regions distributed in mechanical series along it. A sensory region is usually comprised of the coiled branches of one afferent axon. These embrace the intrafusal fibres and ultimately form long fine varicose endings on or near them. The intrafusal striations appear to be lost for a short distance within the sensory region, and in this region the intrafusal fibre nuclei crowd together. The ‘small’ extrafusal efferents break up into trusses of fine unmyelinated axons and terminate as ‘grape’ end-plates, several of which can occur on the same muscle fibre. This is the ‘tonic’ system. The ‘large’ extrafusal efferents terminate as ‘Endbiischel’ end-plates on muscle fibres not supplied by grape endings. This is the ‘twitch’ system. Both ‘grape' and ‘twitch’ end-plates occur on the intrafusal bundle (probably on separate fibres) between the sensory regions. They are supplied by branches of ‘small’ or ‘large’ axons respectively, which also innervate extrafusal fibres. Thus like the extrafusals the intrafusal bundle is composed of ‘tonic’ and ‘twitch’ muscle fibres. This situation contrasts with that of the mammal, where extrafusals are exclusively ‘twitch’ fibres and intrafusals ‘tonic’.
This paper references



This paper is referenced by
10.1113/jphysiol.1961.sp006717
Structural differences of fast and slow extrafusal muscle fibres and their nerve endings in chickens
A. Hess (1961)
10.1002/AR.1091390209
Two kinds of motor nerve endings on mammalian intrafusal muscle fibers revealed by the cholinesterase technique
A. Hess (1961)
10.1007/BF00416778
Zur Koppelung der intrafusalen und extrafusalen motorischen Innervation beim Frosch
F. Schulte (2004)
10.1007/978-3-642-65945-4_1
The Morphology of Muscle Receptors
D. Barker (1974)
10.1002/AR.1091430306
Distribution and structure of muscle spindles in the extensor digitorum brevis of the cat
C. Bridgman (1962)
10.1016/0022-510X(84)90018-2
Observations on the innervation of human extraocular muscles
M. Sadeh (1984)
10.18999/NAGJMS.40.1-2.13
Potential deflections at the terminal of the frog muscle spindle during stretch.
F. Ito (1978)
10.1007/978-3-642-68074-8_10
Primary Afferent Synaptic Modulation as a Mechanism of Behavioral Compensation Following Spinal Cord Lesion in the Frog
A. Blight (1981)
10.1113/jphysiol.1962.sp006829
Responses of the nerve terminal of the Pacinian corpuscle
C. Hunt (1962)
10.1113/jphysiol.1973.sp010293
Innervation of extrafusal and intrafusal fibres in snake muscle
G. Cliff (1973)
10.1098/rstb.1961.0001
The termination of the afferent nerve fibre in the muscle spindle of the frog
B. Katz (1961)
COMPARISON OF FAST AND SLOW MUSCLE
(2005)
10.1212/WNL.20.5.463
Innervation of normal human muscle spindles
W. Kennedy (1970)
10.1016/B978-0-12-119401-7.50011-6
5 – On the Fine Structure of Lymph Hearts in Amphibia and Reptiles
Y. Satoh (1980)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.06-02-00498.1986
Differences in transmitter release and number of nerve terminals per motoneuron between two frog muscles
Y. Yao (1986)
10.1111/J.1365-201X.1968.TB10842.X
Spontaneous afferent discharges and spontaneous intrafusal contractions in isolated muscle spindles of the frog.
Samia Al Azharia Jahn (1968)
10.1111/J.1748-1716.1964.TB03967.X
CONTRACTION IN INTRAFUSAL MUSCLE FIBRES OF XENOPUS LAEVIS FOLLOWING STIMULATION OF THEIR MOTOR NERVES.
R. S. Smith (1964)
A study of receptors in jaw muscles of the rat and other vertebrates
H. Saed (1989)
10.1113/jphysiol.1966.sp008063
The effects of suxamethonium and acetylcholine on the behaviour of cat muscle spindles during dynamic stretching, and during fusimotor stimulation
P. Rack (1966)
10.1016/S0074-7742(08)60768-0
PATTERNS OF MUSCULAR INNERVATION IN THE LOWER CHORDATES.
Q. Bone (1964)
10.1007/BF00225450
The differentiation of intrafusal fibre types in rat muscle spindles after motor denervation
J. Zelená (2004)
10.1007/BF00304734
Ultrastructural identification of the primitive muscle spindle in the Xenopus laevis larvae
Hideyo Shinmori (2004)
10.1111/J.1748-1716.1966.TB03427.X
Types of Muscle Fibres in Toad Skeletal Muscle
J. Lännergren (1966)
10.1007/BF00270654
Characteristics of the sensory discharge of the muscle spindle in Xenopus laevis
Z. Koles (2004)
10.1007/BF01176380
Development of neuromuscular junctions of fast and slow muscles in the chick embryo: a light and electron microscopic study
S. Atsumi (1977)
10.1111/J.1748-1716.1967.TB03533.X
Contractures of single slow muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis elicited by potassium, acetylcholine or choline.
J. Lännergren (1967)
The structure and innervation of tortoise muscle spindles
A. Ragab (1970)
10.1016/0301-0082(74)90001-X
Extrafusal muscle and muscle spindles in reptiles.
U. Proske (1975)
10.1046/j.1471-4159.1994.63051609.x
Transcription and Motoneuron Size
S. Sato (1994)
10.1007/BF00242806
Über den Nachweis von phasischen und tonischen motorischen Einheiten bei Säugetieren und dem Menschen
P. Krüger (2004)
10.1006/exnr.1999.7051
Magnitude, Laterality, and Uniformity of Swelling in Axotomized Spinal Motoneurons: Lack of Evidence for Influence by the Distal Stump
D. McIlwain (1999)
10.2330/JORALBIOSCI1965.28.236
Tandem muscle-spindle in the masseter muscle of mice
N. Maeda (1986)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar