Organic Dust Exposure Induces Stress Response And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Monocytic Cells
Exposure to airborne organic dust (OD), rich in microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns, has been shown to induce inflammatory responses in the lung resulting in changes in airway structure and function. A common manifestation in lung inflammation is the occurrence of altered mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics, consequently regulating mitochondrial ROS (mROS) and creating a vicious cycle of mitochondrial dysfunction.
The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in airway diseases such as COPD and asthma is well known. However, whether OD exposure induces mitochondrial dysfunction largely remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we tested a hypothesis that OD exposure induces mitochondrial stress using a human monocytic cell line (THP-1). We examined the mechanisms of organic dust extract (ODE) exposure-induced mitochondrial structural and functional changes in THP-1 cells.
In addition, the effect of co-exposure to ethyl pyruvate (EP), a known anti-inflammatory agent, or mitoapocynin (MA), a mitochondria targeting NOX2 inhibitor was examined. Transmission electron microscopy images showed significant changes in cellular and organelle morphology upon ODE exposure. ODE exposure with and without EP co-treatment increased the mtDNA leakage into the cytosol. Next, ODE exposure increased the PINK1 and Parkin expression, cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels and reduced mitochondrial mass and cell viability, indicating mitophagy. MA treatment was partially protective by decreasing Parkin expression, mtDNA and cytochrome c release and increasing cell viability.