Cellular Feedback To Organotelluranes Displays Modulation Of Antioxidant Proteins Gene Expression
Organotelluranes RT3 and RT4 are thiol reagents that induce mitochondrial transition pore (MTP) opening in a sensitive and insensitive manner to cyclosporin A. Although RT3 and RT4 promote glutathione depletion, paradoxically, they are also an efficient antioxidant for membrane lipids. These compounds’ antagonistic effects elicited the challenging question of how the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes would respond to treatment with these compounds. The influence of RT3 and RT4 on antioxidant enzyme expression was investigated in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMC). RT3 and RT4 promoted disruption of ionic calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ), and cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cell death mechanisms responded qualitatively to the increase of the organotellurane concentration and changed from apoptosis to necrosis. RT3 and RT4 increased the expression of thioredoxin significantly. RT3 also increased the expression of glutaredoxin and glutathione peroxidase, slightly the catalase expression without significant effects on SOD expression. The results are consistent with GSH and protein thiol depletion and discussed based on the cell toxicity mechanism exhibited by these compounds.