Gene Duplication And Rate Variation In The Evolution Of Plastid ACCase And Clp Genes In Angiosperms
While the chloroplast (plastid) is known for its role in photosynthesis, it is also involved in many other metabolic pathways essential for plant survival. As such, plastids contain an extensive suite of enzymes required for non-photosynthetic processes. The evolution of the associated genes has been especially dynamic in flowering plants (angiosperms), including examples of gene duplication and extensive rate variation. We examined the role of ongoing gene duplication in two key plastid enzymes, the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and the caseinolytic protease (Clp), responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis and protein turnover, respectively. In plants, there are two ACCase complexes—a homomeric version present in the cytosol and a heteromeric version present in the plastid. Duplications of the nuclear-encoded homomeric ACCase gene and retargeting of one resultant protein to the plastid have been previously reported in multiple species. We find that these retargeted homomeric ACCase proteins exhibit elevated rates of sequence evolution, consistent with neofunctionalization and/or relaxation of selection. The plastid Clp complex catalytic core is composed of nine paralogous proteins that arose via ancient gene duplication in the cyanobacterial/plastid lineage. We show that further gene duplication occurred more recently in the nuclear-encoded core subunits of this complex, yielding additional paralogs in many species of angiosperms. Moreover, in six of eight cases, subunits that have undergone recent duplication display increased rates of sequence evolution relative to those that have remained single copy. We also compared substitution patterns between pairs of Clp core paralogs to gain insight into post-duplication evolutionary routes. These results show that gene duplication and rate variation continue to shape the plastid proteome.